Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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R. J. Silverwood, Mansfield, K. E., Mulick, A., Wong, A. Y. S., Schmidt, S. A. J., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., Abuabara, K., and Langan, S. M., Atopic eczema in adulthood and mortality: UK population-based cohort study, 1998-2016, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2021.
K. E. Mansfield, Mathur, R., Tazare, J., Henderson, A. D., Mulick, A. R., Carreira, H., Matthews, A. A., Bidulka, P., Gayle, A., Forbes, H., Cook, S., Wong, A. Y. S., Strongman, H., Wing, K., Warren-Gash, C., Cadogan, S. L., Smeeth, L., Hayes, J. F., Quint, J. K., McKee, M., and Langan, S. M., Indirect acute effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health in the UK: a population-based study, Lancet Digit Health, 2021.
Y. Schonmann, Mansfield, K. E., Mulick, A., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., Langan, S. M., and Nitsch, D., Inflammatory Skin Diseases and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease - Population-Based Case-control and Cohort analyses, Br J Dermatol, 2021.
J. P. Brown, Tazare, J. R., Williamson, E., Mansfield, K. E., Evans, S. J., Tomlinson, L. A., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Wing, K., and Douglas, I. J., Proton pump inhibitors and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2021.
J. L. Walker, Grint, D. J., Strongman, H., Eggo, R. M., Peppa, M., Minassian, C., Mansfield, K. E., Rentsch, C. T., Douglas, I. J., Mathur, R., Wong, A. Y. S., Quint, J. K., Andrews, N., Bernal, J. L., Scott, J. A., Ramsay, M., Smeeth, L., and McDonald, H. I., UK prevalence of underlying conditions which increase the risk of severe COVID-19 disease: a point prevalence study using electronic health records, BMC Public Health, vol. 21, p. 484, 2021.
J. Ruzangi, Iwagami, M., Smeeth, L., Mangtani, P., and Nitsch, D., The association between chronic kidney disease and tuberculosis; a comparative cohort study in England, BMC Nephrol, vol. 21, p. 420, 2020.
C. E. Morton, Forbes, H. J., Pearce, N., Smeeth, L., and Warren-Gash, C., Association Between Common Infections and Incident Post-Stroke Dementia: A Cohort Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 12, pp. 907-916, 2020.
A. Y. S. Wong, Froslev, T., Dearing, L., Forbes, H. J., Mulick, A., Mansfield, K. E., Silverwood, R. J., Kjaersgaard, A., Sorensen, H. T., Smeeth, L., Lewin, A., Schmidt, S. A. J., and Langan, S. M., The association between partner bereavement and melanoma: cohort studies in the U.K. and Denmark, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
A. Ascott, Mansfield, K. E., Schonmann, Y., Mulick, A., Abuabara, K., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., and Langan, S. M., Atopic eczema and obesity: a population-based study, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
S. Wilkinson, Williamson, E., Pokrajac, A., Fogarty, D., Stirnadel-Farrant, H., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I. J., and Tomlinson, L. A., Comparative effects of sulfonylureas, DPP4is and SGLT2 inhibitors added to metformin monotherapy: a propensity-score matched cohort study in UK primary care, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2020.
P. Bidulka, Iwagami, M., Mansfield, K. E., Kalogirou, F., Wong, A. Y. S., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., Summers, C., and Tomlinson, L. A., Comparisons of Staphylococcus aureus infection and other outcomes between users of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers: lessons for COVID-19 from a nationwide cohort study, Wellcome Open Res, vol. 5, p. 77, 2020.
A. D. Morgan, Sinnott, S. J., Smeeth, L., Minassian, C., and Quint, J., Concordance in the recording of stroke across UK primary and secondary care datasets: a population-based cohort study, BJGP Open, 2020.
G. H. B. Greenhall, Mansfield, K. E., Nitsch, D., Iwagami, M., Leyrat, C., Johnston, R., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., The effect of initiation of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on haemoglobin: A national cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
R. Mathur, Palla, L., Farmer, R. E., Chaturvedi, N., and Smeeth, L., Ethnic differences in the severity and clinical management of type 2 diabetes at time of diagnosis: A cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 160, p. 108006, 2020.
R. Mathur, Farmer, R. E., Eastwood, S. V., Chaturvedi, N., Douglas, I., and Smeeth, L., Ethnic disparities in initiation and intensification of diabetes treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes in the UK, 1990-2017: A cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003106, 2020.
J. Tazare, Smeeth, L., Evans, S. J. W., Williamson, E., and Douglas, I. J., Implementing high-dimensional propensity score principles to improve confounder adjustment in UK electronic health records, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
H. J. Forbes, Bhaskaran, K., Grint, D., Hu, V. H., Langan, S. M., McDonald, H. I., Morton, C., Smeeth, L., Walker, J. L., and Warren-Gash, C., Incidence of acute complications of herpes zoster among immunocompetent adults in England: a matched cohort study using routine health data, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
H. Carreira, Strongman, H., Peppa, M., McDonald, H., dos-Santos-Silva, I., Stanway, S., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Prevalence of COVID-19-related risk factors and risk of severe influenza outcomes in cancer survivors: A matched cohort study using linked English electronic health records data, EClinicalMedicine, 2020.
H. Carreira, Williams, R., Dempsey, H., Stanway, S., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Quality of life and mental health in breast cancer survivors compared with non-cancer controls: a study of patient-reported outcomes in the United Kingdom, J Cancer Surviv, 2020.
K. Wing, Williamson, E., Carpenter, J. R., Wise, L., Schneeweiss, S., Smeeth, L., Quint, J. K., and Douglas, I., Real world effects of COPD medications: a cohort study with validation against RCT results, Eur Respir J, 2020.
H. Forbes, Douglas, I., Finn, A., Breuer, J., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Packer, S., Langan, S. M., Mansfield, K. E., Marlow, R., Whitaker, H., and Warren-Gash, C., Risk of herpes zoster after exposure to varicella to explore the exogenous boosting hypothesis: self controlled case series study using UK electronic healthcare data, Bmj, vol. 368, p. l6987, 2020.
P. Bidulka, Fu, E. L., Leyrat, C., Kalogirou, F., McAllister, K. S. L., Kingdon, E. J., Mansfield, K. E., Iwagami, M., Smeeth, L., Clase, C. M., Bhaskaran, K., van Diepen, M., Carrero, J. J., Nitsch, D., and Tomlinson, L. A., Stopping renin-angiotensin system blockers after acute kidney injury and risk of adverse outcomes: parallel population-based cohort studies in English and Swedish routine care, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 195, 2020.
A. Root, Brown, J. P., Forbes, H. J., Bhaskaran, K., Hayes, J., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I. J., Association of Relative Age in the School Year With Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Depression, JAMA Pediatr, 2019.
K. E. Lowe, Mansfield, K. E., Delmestri, A., Smeeth, L., Roberts, A., Abuabara, K., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Langan, S. M., Atopic eczema and fracture risk in adults: A population-based cohort study, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2019.
Y. Schonmann, Mansfield, K. E., Hayes, J. F., Abuabara, K., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., and Langan, S. M., Atopic eczema in adulthood and risk of depression and anxiety: a population-based cohort study, J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 2019.
H. Strongman, Brown, A., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Body mass index and Hodgkin's lymphoma: UK population-based cohort study of 5.8 million individuals, Br J Cancer, 2019.
F. Nissen, Douglas, I. J., Mullerova, H., Pearce, N., Bloom, C. I., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Clinical profile of predefined asthma phenotypes in a large cohort of UK primary care patients (Clinical Practice Research Datalink), J Asthma Allergy, vol. 12, pp. 7-19, 2019.
S. J. Sinnott, Smeeth, L., Williamson, E., Perel, P., Nitsch, D., Tomlinson, L. A., and Douglas, I. J., The comparative effectiveness of fourth-line drugs in resistant hypertension: An application in electronic health record data, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
K. Mansfield, Crellin, E., Denholm, R., Quint, J. K., Smeeth, L., Cook, S., and Herrett, E., Completeness and validity of alcohol recording in general practice within the UK: a cross-sectional study, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e031537, 2019.
C. I. Bloom, Douglas, I., Olney, J., D'Ancona, G., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Cost saving of switching to equivalent inhalers and its effect on health outcomes, Thorax, 2019.
E. Herrett, Gadd, S., Jackson, R., Bhaskaran, K., Williamson, E., Van Staa, T., Sofat, R., Timmis, A., and Smeeth, L., Eligibility and subsequent burden of cardiovascular disease of four strategies for blood pressure-lowering treatment: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet, 2019.
S. I. Shiekh, Forbes, H., Mathur, R., Smeeth, L., Pearce, N., and Warren-Gash, C., Ethnicity and risk of diagnosed dementia after stroke: a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, J Epidemiol Community Health, 2019.
M. Pikoula, Quint, J. K., Nissen, F., Hemingway, H., Smeeth, L., and Denaxas, S., Identifying clinically important COPD sub-types using data-driven approaches in primary care population based electronic health records, BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, vol. 19, p. 86, 2019.
H. Strongman, Gadd, S., Matthews, A., Mansfield, K. E., Stanway, S., Lyon, A. R., dos-Santos-Silva, I., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Medium and long-term risks of specific cardiovascular diseases in survivors of 20 adult cancers: a population-based cohort study using multiple linked UK electronic health records databases, Lancet, 2019.
R. E. Farmer, Ford, D., Mathur, R., Chaturvedi, N., Kaplan, R., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Metformin use and risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cohort study of primary care records using inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models, Int J Epidemiol, 2019.
C. Minassian, Williams, R., Meeraus, W. H., Smeeth, L., Campbell, O. M. R., and Thomas, S. L., Methods to generate and validate a Pregnancy Register in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink primary care database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 28, pp. 923-933, 2019.
H. J. Forbes, Wong, A. Y. S., Morton, C., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Richards, M., Schmidt, S. A. J., Langan, S. M., and Warren-Gash, C., Partner Bereavement and Detection of Dementia: A UK-Based Cohort Study Using Routine Health Data, J Alzheimers Dis, 2019.
A. Y. S. Wong, Froslev, T., Forbes, H. J., Kjaersgaard, A., Mulick, A., Mansfield, K., Silverwood, R. J., Sorensen, H. T., Smeeth, L., Schmidt, S. A. J., and Langan, S. M., Partner bereavement and risk of psoriasis and atopic eczema: cohort studies in the United Kingdom and Denmark, Br J Dermatol, 2019.
C. I. Bloom, Ricciardi, F., Smeeth, L., Stone, P., and Quint, J. K., Predicting COPD 1-year mortality using prognostic predictors routinely measured in primary care, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 73, 2019.
S. E. Bromley, Matthews, A., Smeeth, L., Stanway, S., and Bhaskaran, K., Risk of dementia among postmenopausal breast cancer survivors treated with aromatase inhibitors versus tamoxifen: a cohort study using primary care data from the UK, J Cancer Surviv, vol. 13, pp. 632-640, 2019.
K. E. Mansfield, Douglas, I. J., Nitsch, D., Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., Acute kidney injury and infections in patients taking antihypertensive drugs: a self-controlled case series analysis, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 187-202, 2018.
K. Bhaskaran, dos-Santos-Silva, I., Leon, D. A., Douglas, I. J., and Smeeth, L., Association of BMI with overall and cause-specific mortality: a population-based cohort study of 3.6 million adults in the UK, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 6, pp. 944-953, 2018.
J. Wilding, Godec, T., Khunti, K., Pocock, S., Fox, R., Smeeth, L., Clauson, P., Fenici, P., Hammar, N., and Medina, J., Changes in HbA1c and weight, and treatment persistence, over the 18 months following initiation of second-line therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMC Med, vol. 16, p. 116, 2018.
S. Wilkinson, Douglas, I., Stirnadel-Farrant, H., Fogarty, D., Pokrajac, A., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L., Changing use of antidiabetic drugs in the UK: trends in prescribing 2000-2017, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e022768, 2018.
M. Iwagami, Caplin, B., Smeeth, L., Tomlinson, L. A., and Nitsch, D., Chronic kidney disease and cause-specific hospitalisation: a matched cohort study using primary and secondary care patient data, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e512-e523, 2018.
A. D. Morgan, Rothnie, K. J., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a population-based study using UK primary care data, Thorax, vol. 73, pp. 877-879, 2018.
F. Nissen, Morales, D. R., Mullerova, H., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I. J., and Quint, J. K., Concomitant diagnosis of asthma and COPD: a quantitative study in UK primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e775-e782, 2018.
C. I. Bloom, Nissen, F., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., Cullinan, P., and Quint, J. K., Exacerbation risk and characterisation of the UK's asthma population from infants to old age, Thorax, vol. 73, pp. 313-320, 2018.
S. Wilkinson, Douglas, I. J., Williamson, E., Stirnadel-Farrant, H. A., Fogarty, D., Pokrajac, A., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., Factors associated with choice of intensification treatment for type 2 diabetes after metformin monotherapy: a cohort study in UK primary care, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 1639-1648, 2018.
M. Iwagami, Tomlinson, L. A., Mansfield, K. E., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., and Nitsch, D., Gastrointestinal bleeding risk of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors by level of kidney function: A population-based cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 84, pp. 2142-2151, 2018.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]