Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 July 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 206 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2551 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
R. Flynn, Hedenmalm, K., Murray-Thomas, T., Pacurariu, A., Arlett, P., Shepherd, H., Myles, P., and Kurz, X., Ability of primary care health databases to assess medicinal products discussed by the European Union Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee, Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2020.
G. Simoneau, Moodie, E. E. M., Azoulay, L., and Platt, R. W., Adaptive Treatment Strategies with Survival Outcomes: An Application to the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes using a Large Observational Database, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
K. Kostikas, Rhee, C. K., Hurst, J. R., Agostoni, P., Cao, H., Fogel, R., Jones, R., Kocks, J. W. H., Mezzi, K., S. Ming, W. Yau, Ryan, R., and Price, D. B., Adequacy of Therapy for People with Both COPD and Heart Failure in the UK: Historical Cohort Study, Pragmat Obs Res, vol. 11, pp. 55-66, 2020.
H. Kither, Heazell, A., Bruce, I. N., Tower, C., and Crocker, I., Adverse pregnancy outcomes and subsequent development of connective tissue disease in the UK: an epidemiological study, Bjog, 2020.
A. K. Wright, Welsh, P., Gill, J. M. R., Kontopantelis, E., Emsley, R., Buchan, I., Ashcroft, D. M., Rutter, M. K., and Sattar, N., Age-, sex- and ethnicity-related differences in body weight, blood pressure, HbA(1c) and lipid levels at the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes relative to people without diabetes, Diabetologia, 2020.
R. Cushen and Francis, N. A., Antibiotic use and serious complications following acute otitis media and acute sinusitis: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 70, pp. e255-e263, 2020.
S. Ramagopalan, Leahy, T. P., Stamp, E., and Sammon, C., Approaches for the identification of chronic kidney disease in CPRD-HES-linked studies, J Comp Eff Res, 2020.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Filion, K. B., Bouganim, N., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Aromatase Inhibitors and the Risk of Cardiovascular Outcomes in Women With Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Circulation, vol. 141, pp. 549-559, 2020.
G. Requena, Ma, L., Sturmer, T., Layton, J. B., and DiBello, J., Association Between an Acute, Drug-Induced Decrease in High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels and Risk of Cardiovascular Events, Clin Drug Investig, 2020.
R. Hiramatsu, Iwagami, M., and Nitsch, D., Association between chronic kidney disease and incident diagnosis of dementia in England: a cohort study in Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e033811, 2020.
M. Kerkhof, Voorham, J., Dorinsky, P., Cabrera, C., Darken, P., Kocks, J. W., Sadatsafavi, M., Sin, D. D., Carter, V., and Price, D. B., Association between COPD exacerbations and lung function decline during maintenance therapy, Thorax, 2020.
A. Y. S. Wong, Froslev, T., Dearing, L., Forbes, H. J., Mulick, A., Mansfield, K. E., Silverwood, R. J., Kjaersgaard, A., Sorensen, H. T., Smeeth, L., Lewin, A., Schmidt, S. A. J., and Langan, S. M., The association between partner bereavement and melanoma: cohort studies in the U.K. and Denmark, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
R. Palladino, Tabak, A. G., Khunti, K., Valabhji, J., Majeed, A., Millett, C., and Vamos, E. P., Association between pre-diabetes and microvascular and macrovascular disease in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 8, 2020.
R. Jacobs, Aylott, L., Dare, C., Doran, T., Gilbody, S., Goddard, M., Gravelle, H., Gutacker, N., Kasteridis, P., Kendrick, T., Mason, A., Rice, N., Ride, J., Siddiqi, N., and Williams, R., The association between primary care quality and health-care use, costs and outcomes for people with serious mental illness: a retrospective observational study, in Health Services and Delivery Research, Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library Copyright © Queen’s Printer and Controller of HMSO 2020. This work was produced by Jacobs et al. under the terms of a commissioning contract issued by the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care. This issue may be freely rep, 2020.
B. D. Nicholson, Hamilton, W., Koshiaris, C., Oke, J. L., Hobbs, F. D. R., and Aveyard, P., The association between unexpected weight loss and cancer diagnosis in primary care: a matched cohort analysis of 65,000 presentations, Br J Cancer, 2020.
H. Fan, Gilbert, R., O'Callaghan, F., and Li, L., Associations between macrolide antibiotics prescribing during pregnancy and adverse child outcomes in the UK: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 368, p. m331, 2020.
F. Giorgianni, Ernst, P., Dell'Aniello, S., Suissa, S., and Renoux, C., Beta 2 agonists and the incidence of Parkinson's disease, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
J. A. H. Masoli, Delgado, J., Pilling, L., Strain, D., and Melzer, D., Blood pressure in frail older adults: associations with cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality, Age Ageing, 2020.
M. Gokhale, Hattori, T., Evitt, L., Lenney, W., Nordstrom, B., Collins, J., Schultze, A., and Van Dyke, M. K., Burden of asthma exacerbations and health care utilization in pediatric patients with asthma in the US and England, Immun Inflamm Dis, 2020.
I. Matthews, Duong, M., Parsons, V. L., Nozad, B., Qizilbash, N., Patel, Y., and Guimicheva, B., Burden of disease from shingles and post-herpetic neuralgia in the over 80 year olds in the UK, PLoS One, vol. 15, p. e0229224, 2020.
E. Ford, Rooney, P., Hurley, P., Oliver, S., Bremner, S., and Cassell, J., Can the Use of Bayesian Analysis Methods Correct for Incompleteness in Electronic Health Records Diagnosis Data? Development of a Novel Method Using Simulated and Real-Life Clinical Data, Front Public Health, vol. 8, p. 54, 2020.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Bouganim, N., Filion, K. B., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Cardiotoxicity of Sequential Aromatase Inhibitors Use in Women with Breast Cancer, Am J Epidemiol, 2020.
S. Chowienczyk, Price, S., and Hamilton, W., Changes in the presenting symptoms of lung cancer from 2000-2017: a serial cross-sectional study of observational records in UK primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
R. B. Weinstein, Ryan, P. B., Berlin, J. A., Schuemie, M. J., Swerdel, J., and Fife, D., Channeling Bias in the Analysis of Risk of Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, Gastrointestinal Bleeding, and Acute Renal Failure with the Use of Paracetamol Compared with Ibuprofen, Drug Saf, 2020.
Y. Zhu, Edwards, D., Mant, J., Payne, R. A., and Kiddle, S., Characteristics, service use and mortality of clusters of multimorbid patients in England: a population-based study, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 78, 2020.
R. Partington, Muller, S., Mallen, C. D., A. Sultan, A., and Helliwell, T., Comorbidities in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica prior to and following diagnosis: A case control and cohort study, Semin Arthritis Rheum, vol. 50, pp. 663-672, 2020.
S. Wilkinson, Williamson, E., Pokrajac, A., Fogarty, D., Stirnadel-Farrant, H., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I. J., and Tomlinson, L. A., Comparative effects of sulfonylureas, DPP4is and SGLT2 inhibitors added to metformin monotherapy: a propensity-score matched cohort study in UK primary care, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2020.
S. Borghs, Byram, L., Chan, J., Dedeken, P., Logan, J., Kiri, V., Noack-Rink, M., Patsalos, P. N., and Thieffry, S., Comparing healthcare cost associated with the use of enzyme-inducing and non-enzyme active antiepileptic drugs in elderly patients with epilepsy in the UK: a long-term retrospective, matched cohort study, BMC Neurol, vol. 20, p. 7, 2020.
M. C. Gulliford, Sun, X., Anjuman, T., Yelland, E., and Murray-Thomas, T., Comparison of antibiotic prescribing records in two UK primary care electronic health record systems: cohort study using CPRD GOLD and CPRD Aurum databases, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e038767, 2020.
U. Gungabissoon, Kirichek, O., C. Baou, E., and Galwey, N., Comparison of long-term use of prolonged-release ropinirole and immediate-release dopamine agonists in an observational study in patients with Parkinson's disease, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
P. Rockenschaub, Nguyen, V., Aldridge, R. W., Acosta, D., Garcia-Gomez, J. M., and Saez, C., Data-driven discovery of changes in clinical code usage over time: a case-study on changes in cardiovascular disease recording in two English electronic health records databases (2001-2015), BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e034396, 2020.
J. R. Ayala Solares, Raimondi, F. E. Diletta, Zhu, Y., Rahimian, F., Canoy, D., Tran, J., Gomes, A. C. Pinho, Payberah, A. H., Zottoli, M., Nazarzadeh, M., Conrad, N., Rahimi, K., and Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Deep learning for electronic health records: A comparative review of multiple deep neural architectures, J Biomed Inform, vol. 101, p. 103337, 2020.
C. S. Arhi, Burns, E. M., Bottle, A., Bouras, G., Aylin, P., Ziprin, P., and Darzi, A., Delays in referral from primary care worsen survival for patients with colorectal cancer: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 70, pp. e463-e471, 2020.
M. M. Loiacono, Mitsakakis, N., Kwong, J. C., Gomez, G. B., Chit, A., and Grootendorst, P., Development and Validation of a Clinical Prediction Tool for Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in England, JAMA Netw Open, vol. 3, p. e207743, 2020.
C. Mistry, Palin, V., Li, Y., Martin, G. P., Jenkins, D., Welfare, W., Ashcroft, D. M., and Van Staa, T., Development and validation of a multivariable prediction model for infection-related complications in patients with common infections in UK primary care and the extent of risk-based prescribing of antibiotics, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 118, 2020.
R. A. Payne, Mendonca, S. C., Elliott, M. N., Saunders, C. L., Edwards, D. A., Marshall, M., and Roland, M., Development and validation of the Cambridge Multimorbidity Score, Cmaj, vol. 192, pp. E107-e114, 2020.
S. S. Zghebi, Mamas, M. A., Ashcroft, D. M., Salisbury, C., Mallen, C. D., Chew-Graham, C. A., Reeves, D., van Marwijk, H., Qureshi, N., Weng, S., Holt, T., Buchan, I., Peek, N., Giles, S., Rutter, M. K., and Kontopantelis, E., Development and validation of the DIabetes Severity SCOre (DISSCO) in 139 626 individuals with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 8, 2020.
C. J. D. Threapleton, Kimpton, J. E., Carey, I. M., DeWilde, S., Cook, D. G., Harris, T., and Baker, E. H., Development of a structured clinical pharmacology review for specialist support for management of complex polypharmacy in primary care, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
T. R. Card, Zittan, E., Nguyen, G. C., and Grainge, M. J., Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Is Associated With Arterial Vascular Disease, Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2020.
O. Moussa, Ardissino, M., Heaton, T., Tang, A., Khan, O., Ziprin, P., Darzi, A., Collins, P., and Purkayastha, S., Effect of bariatric surgery on long-term cardiovascular outcomes: a nationwide nested cohort study, Eur Heart J, 2020.
G. H. B. Greenhall, Mansfield, K. E., Nitsch, D., Iwagami, M., Leyrat, C., Johnston, R., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., The effect of initiation of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on haemoglobin: A national cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
T. P. van Staa, Palin, V., Li, Y., Welfare, W., Felton, T. W., Dark, P., and Ashcroft, D. M., The effectiveness of frequent antibiotic use in reducing the risk of infection-related hospital admissions: results from two large population-based cohorts, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 40, 2020.
G. Nakafero, Grainge, M. J., Myles, P. R., Mallen, C. D., Zhang, W., Doherty, M., Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S., and Abhishek, A., Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine in autoimmune rheumatic diseases treated with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
S. S. Zghebi, Steinke, D. T., Rutter, M. K., and Ashcroft, D. M., Eleven-year multimorbidity burden among 637 255 people with and without type 2 diabetes: a population-based study using primary care and linked hospitalisation data, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e033866, 2020.
Y. Ye, Jiang, B., Manne, S., Moses, P. L., Almansa, C., Bennett, D., Dolin, P., and Ford, A. C., Epidemiology and outcomes of gastroparesis, as documented in general practice records, in the United Kingdom, Gut, 2020.
A. Banerjee, Pasea, L., Harris, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Torralbo, A., Shallcross, L., Noursadeghi, M., Pillay, D., Sebire, N., Holmes, C., Pagel, C., Wong, W. K., Langenberg, C., Williams, B., Denaxas, S., and Hemingway, H., Estimating excess 1-year mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic according to underlying conditions and age: a population-based cohort study, Lancet, vol. 395, pp. 1715-1725, 2020.
M. D. Danese, Pemberton-Ross, P., Catterick, D., and Villa, G., Estimation of the increased risk associated with recurrent events or polyvascular atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the United Kingdom, Eur J Prev Cardiol, p. 2047487319899212, 2020.
R. Mathur, Palla, L., Farmer, R. E., Chaturvedi, N., and Smeeth, L., Ethnic differences in the severity and clinical management of type 2 diabetes at time of diagnosis: A cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 160, p. 108006, 2020.
R. Mathur, Farmer, R. E., Eastwood, S. V., Chaturvedi, N., Douglas, I., and Smeeth, L., Ethnic disparities in initiation and intensification of diabetes treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes in the UK, 1990-2017: A cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003106, 2020.
E. M. Heintjes, Bezemer, I. D., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Smits, E., Booth, H. P., Dedman, D., He, Y., Hoti, F., Vehkala, M., de Vogel, S., Robinson, N. J., Appenteng, K., and van Beest, F. J. A. Penn, Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Additional Risk Minimization Measure to Reduce the Risk of Prescribing Mirabegron to Patients with Severe Uncontrolled Hypertension in Four European Countries, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 12, pp. 423-433, 2020.
[Page last reviewed 6 July 2020]