Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2770 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
S. M. Grandi, Filion, K. B., Hutcheon, J. A., Rosella, L. C., and Platt, R. W., Accounting for Repeat Pregnancies in Risk Prediction Models, Epidemiology, 2021.
L. L. N. Husemoen, Mørch, L. S., Christensen, P. K., Hartvig, N. V., and Feher, M. D., All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality Among Insulin-Naïve People With Type 2 Diabetes Treated With Insulin Detemir or Glargine: A Cohort Study in the UK, Diabetes Ther, 2021.
E. Rezel-Potts, L'Esperance, V., and Gullifiord, M., Antimicrobial stewardship during the COVID-19 epidemic: population-based cohort study and interrupted time series analysis in the United Kingdom, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
S. S. Johnston, Jamous, N., Mistry, S., Jain, S., Gangoli, G., Danker, W., Ammann, E., and Hampton, K., Association of In-Hospital Surgical Bleeding Events with Prolonged Hospital Length of Stay, Days Spent in Critical Care, Complications, and Mortality: A Retrospective Cohort Study Among Patients Undergoing Neoplasm-Directed Surgeries in English Hospitals, Clinicoecon Outcomes Res, vol. 13, pp. 19-29, 2021.
F. Hamilton, Arnold, D., and Payne, R., Association of prior lymphopenia with mortality in pneumonia: a cohort study in UK primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e148-e156, 2021.
A. J. McKay, Gunn, L. H., Vamos, E. P., Valabhji, J., Molina, G., Molokhia, M., and Majeed, A., Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care diabetes indicators and mortality in an English cohort, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 174, p. 108746, 2021.
A. J. McKay, Gunn, L. H., Nugawela, M., Sathish, T., Majeed, A., Vamos, E., Molina, G., and Sivaprasad, S., Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care indicators and incident sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in the United Kingdom: A population-based historical cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2021.
H. Carreira, Williams, R., Funston, G., Stanway, S., and Bhaskaran, K., Associations between breast cancer survivorship and adverse mental health outcomes: A matched population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom, PLoS Med, vol. 18, p. e1003504, 2021.
R. J. Silverwood, Mansfield, K. E., Mulick, A., Wong, A. Y. S., Schmidt, S. A. J., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., Abuabara, K., and Langan, S. M., Atopic eczema in adulthood and mortality: UK population-based cohort study, 1998-2016, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2021.
E. Ford, Sheppard, J., Oliver, S., Rooney, P., Banerjee, S., and Cassell, J. A., Automated detection of patients with dementia whose symptoms have been identified in primary care but have no formal diagnosis: a retrospective case-control study using electronic primary care records, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e039248, 2021.
D. E. Robinson, Ali, M. S., Strauss, V. Y., Elhussein, L., Abrahamsen, B., Arden, N. K., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Caskey, F., Cooper, C., Dedman, D., Delmestri, A., Judge, A., Javaid, M. K., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Bisphosphonates to reduce bone fractures in stage 3B+ chronic kidney disease: a propensity score-matched cohort study, Health Technol Assess, vol. 25, pp. 1-106, 2021.
K. Ngaosuwan, Johnston, D. G., Godsland, I. F., Cox, J., Majeed, A., Quint, J. K., Oliver, N., and Robinson, S., Cardiovascular disease in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency and the role of comorbidities, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2021.
B. Coles, Zaccardi, F., Hvid, C., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Cardiovascular events and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes and multimorbidity: A real-world study of patients followed for up to 19 years, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 23, pp. 218-227, 2021.
S. S. R. Crossfield, Buch, M. H., Baxter, P., Kingsbury, S. R., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., and Conaghan, P. G., Changes in the pharmacological management of rheumatoid arthritis over two decades, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative Effectiveness of Initial LAMA versus LABA in COPD: Real-World Cohort Study, Copd, vol. 18, pp. 1-8, 2021.
C. S. Arhi, Dudley, R., Moussa, O., Ardissino, M., Scholtz, S., and Purkayastha, S., The Complex Association Between Bariatric Surgery and Depression: a National Nested-Control Study, Obes Surg, 2021.
V. Kuan, Fraser, H. C., Hingorani, M., Denaxas, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Direk, K., Nitsch, D., Mathur, R., Parisinos, C. A., Lumbers, R. T., Sofat, R., Wong, I. C. K., Casas, J. P., Thornton, J. M., Hemingway, H., Partridge, L., and Hingorani, A. D., Data-driven identification of ageing-related diseases from electronic health records, Sci Rep, vol. 11, p. 2938, 2021.
R. Pradhan, Abrahami, D., Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Sahasrabudhe, V., E. Andre, B., and Azoulay, L., Defining Clinically-Relevant Target Populations Using Real-World Data to Guide the Design of Representative Antidiabetic Drug Trials, Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2021.
M. J. Carr, Steeg, S., Webb, R. T., Kapur, N., Chew-Graham, C. A., Abel, K. M., Hope, H., Pierce, M., and Ashcroft, D. M., Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on primary care-recorded mental illness and self-harm episodes in the UK: a population-based cohort study, Lancet Public Health, vol. 6, pp. e124-e135, 2021.
D. Yu, Peat, G., Jordan, K. P., Bailey, J., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Robinson, D. E., Strauss, V. Y., Walker-Bone, K., Silman, A., Mamas, M., Blackburn, S., Dent, S., Dunn, K., Judge, A., Protheroe, J., and Wilkie, R., Estimating the population health burden of musculoskeletal conditions using primary care electronic health records, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
A. Banerjee, Chen, S., Pasea, L., Lai, A. G., Katsoulis, M., Denaxas, S., Nafilyan, V., Williams, B., Wong, W. K., Bakhai, A., Khunti, K., Pillay, D., Noursadeghi, M., Wu, H., Pareek, N., Bromage, D., McDonagh, T. A., Byrne, J., Teo, J. T. H., Shah, A. M., Humberstone, B., Tang, L. V., Shah, A. S. V., Rubboli, A., Guo, Y., Hu, Y., Sudlow, C. L. M., Lip, G. Y. H., and Hemingway, H., Excess deaths in people with cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic, Eur J Prev Cardiol, 2021.
E. Cecil, Bottle, A., Majeed, A., and Aylin, P., Factors associated with potentially missed acute deterioration in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
S. Ling, Zaccardi, F., Lawson, C., Seidu, S. I., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Glucose Control, Sulfonylureas, and Insulin Treatment in Elderly People With Type 2 Diabetes and Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia and Death: An Observational Study, Diabetes Care, 2021.
L. K. Fraser, Murtagh, F. E., Aldridge, J., Sheldon, T., Gilbody, S., and Hewitt, C., Health of mothers of children with a life-limiting condition: a comparative cohort study, Arch Dis Child, 2021.
A. Ruigomez, Plana, E., Gilsenan, A., Fortuny, J., Cainzos-Achirica, M., Flynn, R. W. V., MacDonald, T. M., Garcia-Rodriguez, L., Ziemiecki, R., and Andrews, E. B., Identification and Validation of Major Cardiovascular Events in the United Kingdom Data Sources Included in a Multi-database Post-authorization Safety Study of Prucalopride, Drug Saf, 2021.
S. L. Lay-Flurrie, Sheppard, J. P., Stevens, R. J., Mallen, C., Heneghan, C., Hobbs, F. R., Williams, B., Mant, J., and McManus, R. J., Impact of changes to national guidelines on hypertension-related workload: an interrupted time series analysis in English primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e296-e302, 2021.
L. R. Rodgers, Streeter, A. J., Lin, N., Hamilton, W., and Henley, W. E., Impact of influenza vaccination on amoxicillin prescriptions in older adults: A retrospective cohort study using primary care data, PLoS One, vol. 16, p. e0246156, 2021.
L. Han, Doran, T., Holt, R. I. G., Hewitt, C., Jacobs, R., Prady, S. L., Alderson, S. L., Shiers, D., Wang, H. I., Bellass, S., Gilbody, S., Kitchen, C. E. W., Lister, J., Taylor, J., and Siddiqi, N., The impact of severe mental illness on healthcare use and health outcomes for people with type 2 diabetes, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
K. Ngaosuwan, Johnston, D. G., Godsland, I. F., Cox, J., Majeed, A., Quint, J. K., Oliver, N., and Robinson, S., Increased mortality risk in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2021.
K. E. Mansfield, Mathur, R., Tazare, J., Henderson, A. D., Mulick, A. R., Carreira, H., Matthews, A. A., Bidulka, P., Gayle, A., Forbes, H., Cook, S., Wong, A. Y. S., Strongman, H., Wing, K., Warren-Gash, C., Cadogan, S. L., Smeeth, L., Hayes, J. F., Quint, J. K., McKee, M., and Langan, S. M., Indirect acute effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health in the UK: a population-based study, Lancet Digit Health, 2021.
B. van Bodegraven, Palin, V., Mistry, C., Sperrin, M., White, A., Welfare, W., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Infection-related complications after common infection in association with new antibiotic prescribing in primary care: retrospective cohort study using linked electronic health records, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e041218, 2021.
A. Douros, Santella, C., Dell'Aniello, S., Azoulay, L., Renoux, C., Suissa, S., and Brassard, P., Infectious Disease Burden and the Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A Population-Based Study, J Alzheimers Dis, 2021.
Y. Schonmann, Mansfield, K. E., Mulick, A., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., Langan, S. M., and Nitsch, D., Inflammatory Skin Diseases and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease - Population-Based Case-control and Cohort analyses, Br J Dermatol, 2021.
O. Moussa, Ardissino, M., Tang, A., Edwards, J., Heaton, T., Khan, O., Tsang, K., Collins, P., and Purkayastha, S., Long-term cerebrovascular outcomes after bariatric surgery: A nationwide cohort study, Clin Neurol Neurosurg, vol. 203, p. 106560, 2021.
O. Moussa, Ardissino, M., Muttoni, S., Faraj, A., Tang, A., Khan, O., Collins, P., Jaffer, U., and Purkayastha, S., Long-term incidence and outcomes of obesity-related peripheral vascular disease after bariatric surgery, Langenbecks Arch Surg, 2021.
K. Richardson, Savva, G. M., Boyd, P. J., Aldus, C., Maidment, I., Pakpahan, E., Loke, Y. K., Arthur, A., Steel, N., Ballard, C., Howard, R., and Fox, C., Non-benzodiazepine hypnotic use for sleep disturbance in people aged over 55 years living with dementia: a series of cohort studies, Health Technol Assess, vol. 25, pp. 1-202, 2021.
S. Erridge, Moussa, O., McIntyre, C., Hariri, A., Tolley, N., Kotecha, B., and Purkayastha, S., Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Patients: a UK Population Analysis, Obes Surg, 2021.
E. J. Peach, Pearce, F. A., Gibson, J., Cooper, A. J., Chen, L. C., and Knaggs, R. D., Opioids and the Risk of Fracture: a Self-Controlled Case Series Study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Am J Epidemiol, 2021.
C. A. Lawson, Seidu, S., Zaccardi, F., McCann, G., Kadam, U. T., Davies, M. J., Lam, C. S. P., Heerspink, H. L., and Khunti, K., Outcome trends in people with heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease in the UK over twenty years, EClinicalMedicine, 2021.
L. Sun, Pennells, L., Kaptoge, S., Nelson, C. P., Ritchie, S. C., Abraham, G., Arnold, M., Bell, S., Bolton, T., Burgess, S., Dudbridge, F., Guo, Q., Sofianopoulou, E., Stevens, D., Thompson, J. R., Butterworth, A. S., Wood, A., Danesh, J., Samani, N. J., Inouye, M., and Di Angelantonio, E., Polygenic risk scores in cardiovascular risk prediction: A cohort study and modelling analyses, PLoS Med, vol. 18, p. e1003498, 2021.
Z. Xu, Arnold, M., Stevens, D., Kaptoge, S., Pennells, L., Sweeting, M. J., Barrett, J., Angelantonio, E. D., and Wood, A. M., Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Accounting for Future Initiation of Statin Treatment, Am J Epidemiol, 2021.
R. E. Farmer, Beard, I., Raza, S. I., Gollop, N. D., Patel, N., Tebboth, A., McGovern, A. P., Kanumilli, N., and Ternouth, A., Prescribing in Type 2 Diabetes Patients With and Without Cardiovascular Disease History: a Descriptive Analysis in the UK CPRD, Clin Ther, 2021.
T. X. D. Cao, Fraga, L. F. C., Fergusson, E., Michaud, J., Dell'Aniello, S., Yin, H., Rej, S., Azoulay, L., and Renoux, C., Prescribing Trends of Antidepressants and Psychotropic Coprescription for Youths in UK Primary Care, 2000-2018, J Affect Disord, vol. 287, pp. 19-25, 2021.
V. Baskaran, Pearce, F., Harwood, R. H., McKeever, T. M., and Lim, W. S., Primary care consultations after hospitalisation for pneumonia: a large population-based cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e250-e257, 2021.
Y. Zhou, Walter, F. M., Singh, H., Hamilton, W., Abel, G. A., and Lyratzopoulos, G., Prolonged Diagnostic Intervals as Marker of Missed Diagnostic Opportunities in Bladder and Kidney Cancer Patients with Alarm Features: A Longitudinal Linked Data Study, Cancers (Basel), vol. 13, 2021.
J. P. Brown, Tazare, J. R., Williamson, E., Mansfield, K. E., Evans, S. J., Tomlinson, L. A., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Wing, K., and Douglas, I. J., Proton pump inhibitors and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2021.
M. J. Schuemie, Weinstein, R., Ryan, P. B., and Berlin, J. A., Quantifying bias in epidemiologic studies evaluating the association between acetaminophen use and cancer, Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, vol. 120, p. 104866, 2021.
B. Coles, Zaccardi, F., Seidu, S., Gillies, C. L., Davies, M. J., Hvid, C., and Khunti, K., Rates and estimated cost of primary care consultations in people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and comorbidities: A retrospective analysis of 8.9 million consultations, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2021.
S. W. D. Merriel, Ingle, S. M., May, M. T., and Martin, R. M., Retrospective cohort study evaluating clinical, biochemical and pharmacological prognostic factors for prostate cancer progression using primary care data, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e044420, 2021.
L. van der Sande, Jöbsis, Q., Bannier, M., van de Garde, E. M. W., Coremans, J. J. M., de Vries, F., Dompeling, E., and Driessen, J. H. M., The risk of community-acquired pneumonia in children using gastric acid suppressants, Eur Respir J, 2021.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]