Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 3,000 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography listed below is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 9 January 2023).

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: CPRD bibliography PDF January 2023 (PDF, 6MB, 281 pages) 

Download: CPRD bibliography .BIB January 2023 (BIB, 1.3MB, 1 page)

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website

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Persistent inequalities in consultation incidence and prevalence of low back pain and osteoarthritis in England between 2004 and 2019


Authors: D. Yu, K. Jordan, R. Wilkie, J. Bailey, J. Fitzpatrick, N. Ali, P. Niblett, G. Peat


Factors associated with excess all-cause mortality in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK: A time series analysis using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: H. Strongman, H. Carreira, B. De Stavola, K. Bhaskaran, D. Leon


Surgical treatment, complications, reoperations, and healthcare costs among patients with clavicle fracture in England


Authors: S. Wolf, A. Chitnis, A. Manoranjith, M. Vanderkarr, J. Plaza, L. Gador, C. Holy, C. Sparks, S. Lambert


Clustering of comorbidities and associated outcomes in people with osteoarthritis - A UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink study


Authors: S. Swain, C. Coupland, V. Strauss, C. Mallen, C. Kuo, A. Sarmanova, S. Bierma-Zeinstra, M. Englund, D. Prieto-Alhambra, M. Doherty, W. Zhang


First Maintenance Therapy for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Retrospective Analyses of US and UK Healthcare Databases


Authors: C. Bloom, J. Montonen, O. Jöns, E. Garry, S. Bhatt


UK poSt Arthroplasty Follow-up rEcommendations (UK SAFE): what does analysis of linked, routinely collected national data sets tell us about mid-late term revision risk after hip replacement? Retrospective cohort study


Authors: L. Smith, C. Garriga, S. Kingsbury, R. Pinedo-Villanueva, A. Delmestri, N. Arden, M. Stone, P. Conaghan, A. Judge


Primary care and cancer: an analysis of the impact and inequalities of the COVID-19 pandemic on patient pathways


Authors: T. Watt, R. Sullivan, A. Aggarwal


Ethnic disparities in mortality among overweight or obese adults with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a population-based cohort study


Authors: B. Iyen, Y. Vinogradova, R. Akyea, S. Weng, N. Qureshi, J. Kai


Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists and Risk of Anaphylactic Reaction Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Multisite Population-Based Cohort Study


Authors: R. Pradhan, E. Patorno, H. Tesfaye, S. Schneeweiss, H. Yin, J. Franklin, A. Pawar, C. Santella, O. H. Y. Yu, C. Renoux, L. Azoulay


Effectiveness of bisoprolol versus other β-blockers and other antihypertensive classes: a cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: C. Foch, A. Allignol, T. Hohenberger, E. Boutmy, S. Schaefer, U. Hostalek


Association between glycemic control and risk of venous thromboembolism in diabetic patients: a nested case-control study


Authors: Charlier SH, C. Meier, S. Jick, C. Meier, C. Becker


Opioid use prior to total knee replacement: comparative analysis of trends in England and Sweden


Authors: D. Yu, C. Hellberg, T. Appleyard, A. Dell'Isola, G. Thomas, A. Turkiewicz, M. Englund, G. Peat


Characteristics of New Users of Aclidinium Bromide, Aclidinium/Formoterol, and Other COPD Medications in the United Kingdom, Denmark, and Germany


Authors: E. Rivero-Ferrer, M. Olesen, E. Plana, J. Aguado, N. Saigi-Morgui, A. Rubino, S. Daoud, A. Lei, S. Perez-Gutthann, T. Schink, N. Kristiansen, J. Hallas, A. Pottegard, C. Rebordosa


UK poSt Arthroplasty Follow-up rEcommendations (UK SAFE): what does analysis of linked, routinely collected national datasets tell us about mid-late term revision risk after knee replacement?


Authors: L. Smith, C. Garriga, S. Kingsbury, R. Pinedo-Villanueva, A. Delmestri, N. Arden, M. Stone, P. Conaghan, A. Judge


Trends in the Annual Consultation Incidence and Prevalence of Low Back Pain and Osteoarthritis in England from 2000 to 2019: Comparative Estimates from Two Clinical Practice Databases


Authors: D. Yu, M. Missen, K. Jordan, J. Edwards, J. Bailey, R. Wilkie, J. Fitzpatrick, N. Ali, P. Niblett, G. Peat


Glucocorticoids and Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in Asthma Patients Aged 20-59 Years in the United Kingdom's CPRD 1995-2015


Authors: O. Ayodele, H. Cabral, D. McManus, S. Jick


Treatment Transitions in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Retrospective Analyses of US and UK Healthcare Databases


Authors: C. Bloom, J. Montonen, O. Jöns, E. Garry, S. Bhatt


Transparency of high-dimensional propensity score analyses: guidance for diagnostics and reporting


Authors: J. Tazare, R. Wyss, J. Franklin, L. Smeeth, S. Evans, S. Wang, S. Schneeweiss, I. Douglas, J. Gagne, E. Williamson


Comparative risk of acute myocardial infarction for anti-osteoporosis drugs in primary care: a meta-analysis of propensity-matched cohort findings from the UK Clinical Practice Research Database and the Catalan SIDIAP Database


Authors: S. Khalid, S. Calderon-Larranaga, A. Sami, S. Hawley, A. Judge, N. Arden, T. van Staa, C. Cooper, B. Abrahamsen, M. Javaid, D. Prieto-Alhambra


Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists and Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors and Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes


Authors: R. Pradhan, H. Yin, O. Yu, L. Azoulay


Blood eosinophils to guide inhaled maintenance therapy in a primary care COPD population


Authors: H. Ashdown, M. Smith, E. McFadden, I. Pavord, C. Butler, M. Bafadhel


The importance of blood pressure thresholds versus predicted cardiovascular risk on subsequent rates of cardiovascular disease: a cohort study in English primary care


Authors: E. Herrett, H. Strongman, S. Gadd, L. Tomlinson, D. Nitsch, K. Bhaskaran, E. Williamson, T. Van Staa, R. Sofat, A. Timmis, S. Wells, L. Smeeth, R. Jackson


Screening for type 2 diabetes after a diagnosis of gestational diabetes by ethnicity: A retrospective cohort study


Authors: E. Vounzoulaki, K. Khunti, J. Miksza, B. Tan, M. Davies, C. Gillies


Frequency and Severity of Exacerbations of COPD Associated with Future Risk of Exacerbations and Mortality: A UK Routine Health Care Data Study


Authors: H. Whittaker, A. Rubino, H. Mullerova, T. Morris, P. Varghese, Y. Xu, E. de Nigris, J. Quint


The risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in people prescribed mirtazapine: an active comparator cohort study using electronic health records


Authors: R. Joseph, R. Jack, R. Morriss, R. Knaggs, D. Butler, C. Hollis, J. Hippisley-Cox, C. Coupland


Immortal time bias for life-long conditions in retrospective observational studies using electronic health records


Authors: F. Tyrer, K. Bhaskaran, M. Rutherford


Effectiveness and safety of apixaban vs. rivaroxaban in patients with atrial fibrillation and type 2 diabetes mellitus


Authors: Roy Chowdhury, J. Michaud, O. H. Y. Yu, H. Yin, L. Azoulay, C. Renoux


Comparing antibiotic prescribing between clinicians in UK primary care: an analysis in a cohort study of eight different measures of antibiotic prescribing


Authors: T. Van Staa, Y. Li, N. Gold, T. Chadborn, W. Welfare, V. Palin, D. Ashcroft, J. Bircher


Statin use is associated with lower risk of dementia in stroke patients: a community-based cohort study with inverse probability weighted marginal structural model analysis


Authors: Z. Yang, S. Toh, X. Li, D. Edwards, C. Brayne, J. Mant


Epidemiology of prurigo nodularis in England: a retrospective database analysis


Authors: C. Morgan, M. Thomas, S. Ständer, Z. Jabbar-Lopez, C. Piketty, S. Gabriel, C. Currie, J. Puelles


Antipsychotic treatment patterns in Alzheimer's disease patients with agitation: a cohort study using the UK clinical practice research datalink


Authors: C. Tran, M. Bøg, S. Collings, M. Johnson, N. Qizilbash, S. Lind, R. Baker, K. Jørgensen


β-Blockers and the Risk of Depression: A Matched Case-Control Study


Authors: D. Bornand, D. Reinau, S. Jick, C. Meier


Alcohol use recording in adults with depression in English primary care: a cross-sectional study


Authors: E. Adesanya, S. Cook, E. Crellin, S. Langan, K. Mansfield, L. Smeeth, E. Herrett


Burden of Pertussis in Individuals with a Diagnosis of Asthma: A Retrospective Database Study in England


Authors: A. Bhavsar, E. Aris, L. Harrington, J. Simeone, A. Ramond, D. Lambrelli, A. Papi, L. Boulet, K. Meszaros, N. Jamet, Y. Sergerie, P. Mukherjee


Respiratory-related death in individuals with incident asthma and COPD: a competing risk analysis


Authors: A. Gayle, C. Minelli, J. Quint


Real-world weight change, adherence, and discontinuation among patients with type 2 diabetes initiating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in the UK


Authors: T. Weiss, L. Yang, R. Carr, S. Pal, B. Sawhney, R. Boggs, S. Rajpathak, K. Iglay


Epidemiology of pre-existing multimorbidity in pregnant women in the UK in 2018: a population-based cross-sectional study


Authors: S. Lee, A. Azcoaga-Lorenzo, U. Agrawal, J. Kennedy, A. Fagbamigbe, H. Hope, A. Subramanian, A. Anand, B. Taylor, C. Nelson-Piercy, C. Damase-Michel, C. Yau, F. Crowe, G. Santorelli, K. Eastwood, Z. Vowles, M. Loane, N. Moss, P. Brocklehurst, R. Plachcinski, S. Thangaratinam, M. Black, D. O'Reilly, K. Abel, S. Brophy, K. Nirantharakumar, C. McCowan


Continuity of GP care for patients with dementia: impact on prescribing and the health of patients


Authors: J. Delgado, P. Evans, D. Gray, K. Sidaway-Lee, L. Allan, L. Clare, C. Ballard, J. Masoli, J. Valderas, D. Melzer


Has the gout epidemic peaked in the UK? A nationwide cohort study using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, from 1997 to across the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021


Authors: A. Abhishek, L. Tata, M. Mamas, A. Avery


The feasibility of pragmatic influenza vaccine randomized controlled real-world trials in Denmark and England


Authors: J. Nealon, D. Modin, R. Ghosh, D. Rudin, G. Gislason, H. Booth, J. Jensen, R. Williams, H. Shepherd, E. Yelland, H. Bricout, S. Chaves, T. Biering-Sørensen


No evidence that herpes zoster is associated with increased risk of dementia diagnosis


Authors: C. Warren-Gash, E. Williamson, S. Shiekh, J. Borjas-Howard, N. Pearce, J. Breuer, L. Smeeth


Investigating the optimal handling of uncertain pregnancy episodes in the CPRD GOLD Pregnancy Register: a methodological study using UK primary care data


Authors: J. Campbell, K. Bhaskaran, S. Thomas, R. Williams, H. McDonald, C. Minassian


Estimation of recurrent atherosclerotic cardiovascular event risk in patients with established cardiovascular disease: the updated SMART2 algorithm


Authors: S. Hageman, A. McKay, P. Ueda, L. Gunn, T. Jernberg, E. Hagström, D. Bhatt, P. Steg, K. Läll, R. Mägi, Nordbø Gynnild, H. Ellekjær, I. Saltvedt, J. Tuñón, I. Mahíllo, Á Aceña, K. Kaminski, M. Chlabicz, E. Sawicka, T. Tillman, J. McEvoy, E. Di Angelantonio, I. Graham, D. De Bacquer, K. Ray, J. Dorresteijn, F. Visseren


Consultation rates in people with type 2 diabetes with and without vascular complications: a retrospective analysis of 141,328 adults in England


Authors: S. Abner, C. Gillies, S. Shabnam, F. Zaccardi, S. Seidu, M. Davies, T. Adeyemi, K. Khunti, D. Webb


Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular and Heart Failure Events With SGLT2 Inhibitors, GLP-1 Receptor Agonists, and Their Combination in Type 2 Diabetes


Authors: A. Wright, M. Carr, E. Kontopantelis, L. Leelarathna, H. Thabit, R. Emsley, I. Buchan, M. Mamas, T. van Staa, N. Sattar, D. Ashcroft, M. Rutter


Use of lifestyle interventions in primary care for individuals with newly diagnosed hypertension, hyperlipidaemia or obesity: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: J. Lemp, M. Nuthanapati, T. Bärnighausen, S. Vollmer, P. Geldsetzer, A. Jani


Reduction of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality versus Risk of New Onset Diabetes with Statin Use in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis


Authors: G. Ozen, S. Dell'Aniello, S. Pedro, K. Michaud, S. Suissa


Primary care clinical management following self-harm during the first wave of COVID-19 in the UK: population-based cohort study


Authors: S. Steeg, M. Carr, L. Trefan, D. Ashcroft, N. Kapur, E. Nielsen, B. McMillan, R. Webb


Observational retrospective study calculating health service costs of patients receiving surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis in England, using linked patient-level primary and secondary care electronic data


Authors: C. Clarke, E. Williamson, S. Denaxas, J. Carpenter, M. Thomas, H. Blackshaw, A. Schilder, C. Philpott, C. Hopkins, S. Morris


Associations of Cardiovascular and Non-Cardiovascular Comorbidities with Dementia Risk in Patients with Diabetes: Results from a Large UK Cohort Study


Authors: B. Zheng, B. Su, C. Udeh-Momoh, G. Price, I. Tzoulaki, E. Vamos, A. Majeed, E. Riboli, S. Ahmadi-Abhari, L. Middleton