Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,800 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 June 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 229 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2809 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
S. M. Grandi, Filion, K. B., Hutcheon, J. A., Rosella, L. C., and Platt, R. W., Accounting for Repeat Pregnancies in Risk Prediction Models, Epidemiology, 2021.
L. L. N. Husemoen, Mørch, L. S., Christensen, P. K., Hartvig, N. V., and Feher, M. D., All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality Among Insulin-Naïve People With Type 2 Diabetes Treated With Insulin Detemir or Glargine: A Cohort Study in the UK, Diabetes Ther, 2021.
E. Rezel-Potts, Douiri, A., Chowienczyk, P. J., and Gulliford, M. C., Antihypertensive Medications and COVID-19 Diagnosis and Mortality: Population-based Case-Control Analysis in the United Kingdom, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2021.
E. Rezel-Potts, L'Esperance, V., and Gullifiord, M., Antimicrobial stewardship during the COVID-19 epidemic: population-based cohort study and interrupted time series analysis in the United Kingdom, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
L. M. Woods, Rachet, B., Morris, M., Bhaskaran, K., and Coleman, M. P., Are socio-economic inequalities in breast cancer survival explained by peri-diagnostic factors?, BMC Cancer, vol. 21, p. 485, 2021.
S. S. Zghebi, Mamas, M. A., Ashcroft, D. M., Rutter, M. K., VanMarwijk, H., Salisbury, C., Mallen, C. D., Chew-Graham, C. A., Qureshi, N., Weng, S. F., Holt, T., Buchan, I., Peek, N., Giles, S., Reeves, D., and Kontopantelis, E., Assessing the severity of cardiovascular disease in 213 088 patients with coronary heart disease: a retrospective cohort study, Open Heart, vol. 8, 2021.
J. Blackwell, Alexakis, C., Saxena, S., Creese, H., Bottle, A., Petersen, I., Hotopf, M., and Pollok, R. C. G., Association between antidepressant medication use and steroid dependency in patients with ulcerative colitis: a population-based study, BMJ Open Gastroenterol, vol. 8, 2021.
S. S. Johnston, Jamous, N., Mistry, S., Jain, S., Gangoli, G., Danker, W., Ammann, E., and Hampton, K., Association of In-Hospital Surgical Bleeding Events with Prolonged Hospital Length of Stay, Days Spent in Critical Care, Complications, and Mortality: A Retrospective Cohort Study Among Patients Undergoing Neoplasm-Directed Surgeries in English Hospitals, Clinicoecon Outcomes Res, vol. 13, pp. 19-29, 2021.
F. Hamilton, Arnold, D., and Payne, R., Association of prior lymphopenia with mortality in pneumonia: a cohort study in UK primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e148-e156, 2021.
A. J. McKay, Gunn, L. H., Vamos, E. P., Valabhji, J., Molina, G., Molokhia, M., and Majeed, A., Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care diabetes indicators and mortality in an English cohort, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 174, p. 108746, 2021.
L. H. Gunn, McKay, A. J., Molokhia, M., Valabhji, J., Molina, G., Majeed, A., and Vamos, E. P., Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care indicators and emergency hospital admissions among type 2 diabetes patients: a population-based historical cohort study, J R Soc Med, p. 1410768211005109, 2021.
A. J. McKay, Gunn, L. H., Sathish, T., Vamos, E., Nugawela, M., Majeed, A., Molina, G., and Sivaprasad, S., Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care indicators and incident diabetic retinopathy in England: a population-based historical cohort study, BMC Med, vol. 19, p. 93, 2021.
H. Carreira, Williams, R., Funston, G., Stanway, S., and Bhaskaran, K., Associations between breast cancer survivorship and adverse mental health outcomes: A matched population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom, PLoS Med, vol. 18, p. e1003504, 2021.
R. J. Silverwood, Mansfield, K. E., Mulick, A., Wong, A. Y. S., Schmidt, S. A. J., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., Abuabara, K., and Langan, S. M., Atopic eczema in adulthood and mortality: UK population-based cohort study, 1998-2016, J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2021.
E. Ford, Sheppard, J., Oliver, S., Rooney, P., Banerjee, S., and Cassell, J. A., Automated detection of patients with dementia whose symptoms have been identified in primary care but have no formal diagnosis: a retrospective case-control study using electronic primary care records, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e039248, 2021.
V. R. Varma, Wang, Y., An, Y., Varma, S., Bilgel, M., Doshi, J., Legido-Quigley, C., Delgado, J. C., Oommen, A. M., Roberts, J. A., Wong, D. F., Davatzikos, C., Resnick, S. M., Troncoso, J. C., Pletnikova, O., O'Brien, R., Hak, E., Baak, B. N., Pfeiffer, R., Baloni, P., Mohmoudiandehkordi, S., Nho, K., Kaddurah-Daouk, R., Bennett, D. A., Gadalla, S. M., and Thambisetty, M., Bile acid synthesis, modulation, and dementia: A metabolomic, transcriptomic, and pharmacoepidemiologic study, PLoS Med, vol. 18, p. e1003615, 2021.
D. E. Robinson, Ali, M. S., Strauss, V. Y., Elhussein, L., Abrahamsen, B., Arden, N. K., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Caskey, F., Cooper, C., Dedman, D., Delmestri, A., Judge, A., Javaid, M. K., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Bisphosphonates to reduce bone fractures in stage 3B+ chronic kidney disease: a propensity score-matched cohort study, Health Technol Assess, vol. 25, pp. 1-106, 2021.
C. L. Haase, Eriksen, K. T., Lopes, S., Satylganova, A., Schnecke, V., and McEwan, P., Body mass index and risk of obesity-related conditions in a cohort of 2.9 million people: Evidence from a UK primary care database, Obes Sci Pract, vol. 7, pp. 137-147, 2021.
E. Aris, Harrington, L., Bhavsar, A., Simeone, J. C., Ramond, A., Papi, A., Vogelmeier, C. F., Meszaros, K., Lambrelli, D., and Mukherjee, P., Burden of Pertussis in COPD: A Retrospective Database Study in England, Copd, pp. 1-21, 2021.
G. Funston, Mounce, L. T., Price, S., Rous, B., Crosbie, E. J., Hamilton, W., and Walter, F. M., CA125 test result, test-to-diagnosis interval, and stage in ovarian cancer at diagnosis: a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
K. Ngaosuwan, Johnston, D. G., Godsland, I. F., Cox, J., Majeed, A., Quint, J. K., Oliver, N., and Robinson, S., Cardiovascular disease in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency and the role of comorbidities, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2021.
B. Coles, Zaccardi, F., Hvid, C., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Cardiovascular events and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes and multimorbidity: A real-world study of patients followed for up to 19 years, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 23, pp. 218-227, 2021.
B. L. Neuen, Weldegiorgis, M., Herrington, W. G., Ohkuma, T., Smith, M., and Woodward, M., Changes in GFR and Albuminuria in Routine Clinical Practice and the Risk of Kidney Disease Progression, Am J Kidney Dis, 2021.
S. S. R. Crossfield, Buch, M. H., Baxter, P., Kingsbury, S. R., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., and Conaghan, P. G., Changes in the pharmacological management of rheumatoid arthritis over two decades, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
C. L. Morgan, Jenkins-Jones, S., Knaggs, R., Currie, C., Conway, P., Poole, C. D., and Berni, E., Characterization and Associated Costs of Constipation Relating to Exposure to Strong Opioids in England: An Observational Study, Clin Ther, 2021.
C. Koshiaris, Van den Bruel, A., Nicholson, B. D., Lay-Flurrie, S., Hobbs, F. R., and Oke, J. L., Clinical prediction tools to identify patients at highest risk of myeloma in primary care: a retrospective open cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e347-e355, 2021.
L. Bullock, Bedson, J., Chen, Y., Chew-Graham, C. A., and Campbell, P., Comparative differences in musculoskeletal pain consultation and analgesic prescription for people with dementia: a UK-wide matched cohort study, Pain, 2021.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative Effectiveness of Initial LAMA versus LABA in COPD: Real-World Cohort Study, Copd, vol. 18, pp. 1-8, 2021.
C. R. Dormuth, Winquist, B., Fisher, A., Wu, F., Reynier, P., Suissa, S., Dahl, M., Ma, Z., Lu, X., Zhang, J., Raymond, C. B., Filion, K. B., Platt, R. W., Moriello, C., and Paterson, J. M., Comparison of Pregnancy Outcomes of Patients Treated With Ondansetron vs Alternative Antiemetic Medications in a Multinational, Population-Based Cohort, JAMA Netw Open, vol. 4, p. e215329, 2021.
C. S. Arhi, Dudley, R., Moussa, O., Ardissino, M., Scholtz, S., and Purkayastha, S., The Complex Association Between Bariatric Surgery and Depression: a National Nested-Control Study, Obes Surg, 2021.
T. Denee, Kerr, C., Ming, T., Wood, R., Tritton, T., Middleton-Dalby, C., Massey, O., and Desai, M., Current treatments used in clinical practice for major depressive disorder and treatment resistant depression in England: A retrospective database study, J Psychiatr Res, vol. 139, pp. 172-178, 2021.
V. Kuan, Fraser, H. C., Hingorani, M., Denaxas, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Direk, K., Nitsch, D., Mathur, R., Parisinos, C. A., Lumbers, R. T., Sofat, R., Wong, I. C. K., Casas, J. P., Thornton, J. M., Hemingway, H., Partridge, L., and Hingorani, A. D., Data-driven identification of ageing-related diseases from electronic health records, Sci Rep, vol. 11, p. 2938, 2021.
R. Pradhan, Abrahami, D., Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Sahasrabudhe, V., E. Andre, B., and Azoulay, L., Defining Clinically-Relevant Target Populations Using Real-World Data to Guide the Design of Representative Antidiabetic Drug Trials, Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2021.
S. Sekelj, Sandler, B., Johnston, E., Pollock, K. G., Hill, N. R., Gordon, J., Tsang, C., Khan, S., Ng, F. S., and Farooqui, U., Detecting undiagnosed atrial fibrillation in UK primary care: Validation of a machine learning prediction algorithm in a retrospective cohort study, Eur J Prev Cardiol, vol. 28, pp. 598-605, 2021.
J. van Dalem, M. Brouwers, C., Burden, A. M., C, D. A. Stehouw, Klungel, O. H., de Vries, F., and J. Driessen, H., "Determinants of treatment modification before and after implementation of the updated 2015 NICE guideline on type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study", Diabetes Res Clin Pract, p. 108828, 2021.
O. R. Olaiya and Huynh, M. N. Q., Dupuytren's Disease Predicts Increased All-Cause and Cancer-Specific Mortality: Analysis of a Large Cohort from the U.K. Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Plast Reconstr Surg, vol. 147, p. 890e-891e, 2021.
M. Povey, Aris, E., Cheuvart, B., Hall, G., Cohet, C., and Willame, C., Effectiveness of "Priorix" Against Measles and Mumps Diseases in Children Born After 2004 in the United Kingdom: A Retrospective Case-control Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD Database, Pediatr Infect Dis J, vol. 40, pp. 590-596, 2021.
M. J. Carr, Steeg, S., Webb, R. T., Kapur, N., Chew-Graham, C. A., Abel, K. M., Hope, H., Pierce, M., and Ashcroft, D. M., Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on primary care-recorded mental illness and self-harm episodes in the UK: a population-based cohort study, Lancet Public Health, vol. 6, pp. e124-e135, 2021.
D. Yu, Peat, G., Jordan, K. P., Bailey, J., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Robinson, D. E., Strauss, V. Y., Walker-Bone, K., Silman, A., Mamas, M., Blackburn, S., Dent, S., Dunn, K., Judge, A., Protheroe, J., and Wilkie, R., Estimating the population health burden of musculoskeletal conditions using primary care electronic health records, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
M. Alexandridou, Cattaert, T., and Verstraeten, T., Estimation of Risk of Death Attributable to Acute Gastroenteritis Not Caused by Clostridioides difficile Infection Among Hospitalized Adults in England, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 13, pp. 309-315, 2021.
M. D. Danese, Pemberton-Ross, P., Catterick, D., and Villa, G., Estimation of the increased risk associated with recurrent events or polyvascular atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the United Kingdom, Eur J Prev Cardiol, vol. 28, pp. 335-343, 2021.
J. Davidson, Banerjee, A., Mathur, R., Ramsay, M., Smeeth, L., Walker, J., McDonald, H., and Warren-Gash, C., Ethnic differences in the incidence of clinically diagnosed influenza: an England population-based cohort study 2008-2018, Wellcome Open Res, vol. 6, p. 49, 2021.
R. Caleyachetty, Barber, T. M., Mohammed, N. I., Cappuccio, F. P., Hardy, R., Mathur, R., Banerjee, A., and Gill, P., Ethnicity-specific BMI cutoffs for obesity based on type 2 diabetes risk in England: a population-based cohort study, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 2021.
A. Banerjee, Chen, S., Pasea, L., Lai, A. G., Katsoulis, M., Denaxas, S., Nafilyan, V., Williams, B., Wong, W. K., Bakhai, A., Khunti, K., Pillay, D., Noursadeghi, M., Wu, H., Pareek, N., Bromage, D., McDonagh, T. A., Byrne, J., Teo, J. T. H., Shah, A. M., Humberstone, B., Tang, L. V., Shah, A. S. V., Rubboli, A., Guo, Y., Hu, Y., Sudlow, C. L. M., Lip, G. Y. H., and Hemingway, H., Excess deaths in people with cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic, Eur J Prev Cardiol, 2021.
E. Cecil, Bottle, A., Majeed, A., and Aylin, P., Factors associated with potentially missed acute deterioration in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
K. Ngaosuwan, Johnston, D. G., Godsland, I. F., Cox, J., Majeed, A., Quint, J. K., Oliver, N., and Robinson, S., Full Mortality risk in patients with adrenal insufficiency using Prednisolone or Hydrocortisone: A Retrospective Cohort study, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2021.
S. Ling, Zaccardi, F., Lawson, C., Seidu, S. I., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Glucose Control, Sulfonylureas, and Insulin Treatment in Elderly People With Type 2 Diabetes and Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia and Death: An Observational Study, Diabetes Care, 2021.
B. Zheng, Su, B., Price, G., Tzoulaki, I., Ahmadi-Abhari, S., and Middleton, L., Glycemic Control, Diabetic Complications, and Risk of Dementia in Patients With Diabetes: Results From a Large U.K. Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, 2021.
L. K. Fraser, Murtagh, F. E., Aldridge, J., Sheldon, T., Gilbody, S., and Hewitt, C., Health of mothers of children with a life-limiting condition: a comparative cohort study, Arch Dis Child, 2021.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Boiko, O., Winter, J. R., Rezel-Potts, E., Sun, X., Burgess, C., McDermott, L., Bunce, C., Shearer, J., Curcin, V., Fox, R., Hay, A. D., Little, P., Moore, M. V., and Ashworth, M., Health Services and Delivery Research, in Safety of reducing antibiotic prescribing in primary care: a mixed-methods study, Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library Copyright © 2021 Gulliford et al. This work was produced by Gulliford et al. under the terms of a commissioning contract issued by the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care. This is an Open Access publication distributed und, 2021.
[Page last reviewed 4 June 2021]