Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,800 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 July 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 4MB, 236 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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L. A. Garcia Rodriguez and Ruigomez, A., Gastric acid, acid-suppressing drugs, and bacterial gastroenteritis: how much of a risk?, Epidemiology, vol. 8, pp. 571-4, 1997.
A. Ruigomez, Rodriguez, L. A., Wallander, M. A., Johansson, S., Thomas, M., and Price, D., Gastroesophageal reflux disease and asthma: a longitudinal study in UK general practice, Chest, vol. 128, pp. 85-93, 2005.
M. Iwagami, Tomlinson, L. A., Mansfield, K. E., Douglas, I. J., Smeeth, L., and Nitsch, D., Gastrointestinal bleeding risk of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors by level of kidney function: A population-based cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 84, pp. 2142-2151, 2018.
R. de Jong, Peeters, P., Burden, A. M., De Bruin, M. L., Haak, H. R., Masclee, A. A. M., de Vries, F., and Janssen-Heijnen, M. L. G., Gastrointestinal cancer incidence in type 2 diabetes mellitus; results from a large population-based cohort study in the UK, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 54, pp. 104-111, 2018.
L. Opatrny, Delaney, J. A., and Suissa, S., Gastro-intestinal haemorrhage risks of selective serotonin receptor antagonist therapy: a new look, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 66, pp. 76-81, 2008.
A. Ruigomez, Johansson, S., Wallander, M. A., and Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Gender and drug treatment as determinants of mortality in a cohort of heart failure patients, Eur J Epidemiol, vol. 17, pp. 329-35, 2001.
D. Stolz, Kostikas, K., Loefroth, E., Fogel, R., Clemens, A., Gutzwiller, F. S., Conti, V., and Cao, H., Gender differences in COPD exacerbations: Analysis from the CPRD database, Thorax, vol. 72, p. A186, 2017.
J. E. Amegadzie, Gamble, J. M., Farrell, J., and Gao, Z., Gender Differences in Inhaled Pharmacotherapy Utilization in Patients with Obstructive Airway Diseases (OADs): A Population-Based Study, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 15, pp. 2355-2366, 2020.
T. Verstraeten, Cattaert, T., and Ferreira, G., Gender inequality in acute gastro-enteritis rates in England., Value in Health, vol. 20, p. A781, 2017.
L. M. Howard, Kumar, C., Leese, M., and Thornicroft, G., The general fertility rate in women with psychotic disorders, Am J Psychiatry, vol. 159, pp. 991-7, 2002.
L. J. Tata, West, J., Smith, C., Farrington, P., Card, T., Smeeth, L., and Hubbard, R., General population based study of the impact of tricyclic and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants on the risk of acute myocardial infarction, Heart, vol. 91, pp. 465-71, 2005.
J. Hollowell, The General Practice Research Database: quality of morbidity data, Popul Trends, pp. 36-40, 1997.
E. Morgan, Patterson, C. C., and Cardwell, C. R., General practice-recorded depression and antidepressant use in young people with newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes: a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Diabet Med, vol. 31, pp. 241-5, 2014.
M. D. Danese, Halperin, M., Duryea, J., and Duryea, R., The Generalized Data Model for clinical research, BMC Med Inform Decis Mak, vol. 19, p. 117, 2019.
J. L. Hong, M. Funk, J., LoCasale, R., Dempster, S. E., Cole, S. R., Webster-Clark, M., Edwards, J. K., and Sturmer, T., Generalizing Randomized Clinical Trial Results: Implementation and Challenges Related to Missing Data in the Target Population, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 187, pp. 817-827, 2018.
A. Tucker, Wang, Z., Rotalinti, Y., and Myles, P., Generating high-fidelity synthetic patient data for assessing machine learning healthcare software, NPJ Digit Med, 2020.
S. Desai, Wetten, S., Woodhall, S. C., Peters, L., Hughes, G., and Soldan, K., Genital warts and cost of care in England, Sex Transm Infect, vol. 87, pp. 464-8, 2011.
D. F. Carr, Francis, B., Jorgensen, A. L., Zhang, E., Chinoy, H., Heckbert, S. R., Bis, J. C., Brody, J. A., Floyd, J., Psaty, B. M., Molokhia, M., Lapeyre-Mestre, M., Conforti, A., Alfirevic, A., Van Staa, T., and Pirmohamed, M., Genome-wide association study of statin-induced myopathy in patients recruited using the UK clinical practice research datalink, Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2019.
A. Shah, Prieto-Alhambra, D., Hawley, S., Delmestri, A., Lippett, J., Cooper, C., Judge, A., and Javaid, M. K., Geographic variation in secondary fracture prevention after a hip fracture during 1999-2013: a UK study, Osteoporos Int, vol. 28, pp. 169-178, 2017.
A. Kennerfalk, Ruigomez, A., Wallander, M. A., Wilhelmsen, L., and Johansson, S., Geriatric drug therapy and healthcare utilization in the United kingdom, Ann Pharmacother, vol. 36, pp. 797-803, 2002.
L. Li, Neogi, T., and Jick, S., Giant cell arteritis and vascular disease-risk factors and outcomes: a cohort study using UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 56, pp. 753-762, 2017.
R. Brauer, Bhaskaran, K., Chaturvedi, N., Dexter, D. T., Smeeth, L., and Douglas, I., Glitazone Treatment and Incidence of Parkinson's Disease among People with Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study, PLoS Med, vol. 12, p. e1001854, 2015.
A. Douros, Filion, K. B., Yin, H., Yu, O. H., Etminan, M., Udell, J. A., and Azoulay, L., Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists and the Risk of Incident Diabetic Retinopathy, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 2330-2338, 2018.
B. M. Hicks, Yin, H., Yu, O. H., Pollak, M. N., Platt, R. W., and Azoulay, L., Glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues and risk of breast cancer in women with type 2 diabetes: population based cohort study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Bmj, vol. 355, p. i5340, 2016.
J. Wu, Mackie, S. L., and Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Glucocorticoid dose-dependent risk of type 2 diabetes in six immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: a population-based cohort analysis, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 8, 2020.
R. E. Costello, Yimer, B. B., Roads, P., Jani, M., and Dixon, W. G., Glucocorticoid use is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
S. S. Jick, Lieberman, E. S., Rahman, M. U., and Choi, H. K., Glucocorticoid use, other associated factors, and the risk of tuberculosis, Arthritis Rheum, vol. 55, pp. 19-26, 2006.
E. Kontopantelis, Springate, D. A., Reeves, D., Ashcroft, D. M., Rutter, M. K., Buchan, I., and Doran, T., Glucose, blood pressure and cholesterol levels and their relationships to clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study, Diabetologia, vol. 58, pp. 505-18, 2015.
R. Smith, Han, L., Ali, S., Prady, S. L., Taylor, J., Hughes, T., Ajjan, R. A., Siddiqi, N., and Doran, T., Glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure in type II diabetes: A longitudinal observational study comparing patients with and without severe mental illness, J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs, 2019.
C. L. Morgan, Qiao, Q., Grandy, S., Johnsson, K., Jenkins-Jones, S., Holden, S., and Currie, C. J., Glucose Control and Weight Change Associated with Treatment with Exenatide Compared with Basal Insulin: A Retrospective Study, Diabetes Ther, vol. 9, pp. 269-283, 2018.
S. Ling, Zaccardi, F., Lawson, C., Seidu, S. I., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Glucose Control, Sulfonylureas, and Insulin Treatment in Elderly People With Type 2 Diabetes and Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia and Death: An Observational Study, Diabetes Care, 2021.
T. P. van Staa, Patel, D., Gallagher, A. M., and De Bruin, M. L., Glucose-lowering agents and the patterns of risk for cancer: a study with the General Practice Research Database and secondary care data, Diabetologia, vol. 55, pp. 654-65, 2012.
S. E. Holden, Jenkins-Jones, S., Morgan, C. L., Schernthaner, G., and Currie, C. J., Glucose-lowering with exogenous insulin monotherapy in type 2 diabetes: dose association with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events and cancer, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 17, pp. 350-62, 2015.
P. H. Wilding J, Rigney, U., Blak, B. T., Nolan, S. T., Fenici, P., and Medina, J., Glycaemic, weight, and blood pressure changes associated with early versus later treatment intensification with dapagliflozin in United Kingdom primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, p. 107791, 2019.
J. Wilding, Bailey, C., Rigney, U., Blak, B., Beekman, W., and Emmas, C., Glycated Hemoglobin, Body Weight and Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Initiating Dapagliflozin Treatment in Primary Care: A Retrospective Study, Diabetes Ther, vol. 7, pp. 695-711, 2016.
J. A. Critchley, Carey, I. M., Harris, T., DeWilde, S., Hosking, F. J., and Cook, D. G., Glycemic Control and Risk of Infections Among People With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes in a Large Primary Care Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 2127-2135, 2018.
M. N. Cook, Girman, C. J., Stein, P. P., Alexander, C. M., and Holman, R. R., Glycemic control continues to deteriorate after sulfonylureas are added to metformin among patients with type 2 diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol. 28, pp. 995-1000, 2005.
B. Zheng, Su, B., Price, G., Tzoulaki, I., Ahmadi-Abhari, S., and Middleton, L., Glycemic Control, Diabetic Complications, and Risk of Dementia in Patients With Diabetes: Results From a Large U.K. Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, 2021.
X. V. Peng, McCrimmon, R. J., Shepherd, L., Boss, A., Lubwama, R., Dex, T., Skolnik, N., Ji, L., Avogaro, A., and Blonde, L., Glycemic Control Following GLP-1 RA or Basal Insulin Initiation in Real-World Practice: A Retrospective, Observational, Longitudinal Cohort Study, Diabetes Ther, 2020.
C. Rebordosa, Plana, E., Aguado, J., Thomas, S., Garcia-Gil, E., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Castellsague, J., GOLD assessment of COPD severity in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2018.
A. Alonso, Rodriguez, L. A., Logroscino, G., and Hernan, M. A., Gout and risk of Parkinson disease: a prospective study, Neurology, vol. 69, pp. 1696-700, 2007.
A. A. Sultan, Mallen, C., Hayward, R., Muller, S., Whittle, R., Hotston, M., and Roddy, E., Gout and subsequent erectile dysfunction: a population-based cohort study from England, Arthritis Res Ther, vol. 19, p. 123, 2017.
A. G. Stack, Johnson, M. E., Blak, B., Klein, A., Carpenter, L., Morlock, R., Maguire, A. R., and Parsons, V. L., Gout and the risk of advanced chronic kidney disease in the UK health system: a national cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e031550, 2019.
T. R. Mikuls, Farrar, J. T., Bilker, W. B., Fernandes, S., Schumacher, Jr., H. R., and Saag, K. G., Gout epidemiology: results from the UK General Practice Research Database, 1990-1999, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 64, pp. 267-72, 2005.
S. Jarvis, Parslow, R. C., Hewitt, C., Mitchell, S., and Fraser, L. K., GPs' role in caring for children and young people with life-limiting conditions: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
S. Price, Abel, G. A., and Hamilton, W., Guideline interval: A new time interval in the diagnostic pathway for symptomatic cancer, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 73, p. 101969, 2021.
S. Stapley and Hamilton, W., Gynaecological symptoms reported by young women: examining the potential for earlier diagnosis of cervical cancer, Fam Pract, vol. 28, pp. 592-8, 2011.
[Page last reviewed 5 July 2021]