Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 July 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 206 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2551 results:
Author Title [ Type(Asc)] Year
Journal Article
M. Schmidt, Mansfield, K. E., Bhaskaran, K., Nitsch, D., Sorensen, H. T., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., Serum creatinine elevation after renin-angiotensin system blockade and long term cardiorenal risks: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 356, p. j791, 2017.
C. Renoux, Lix, L. M., Patenaude, V., Bresee, L. C., Paterson, J. M., Lafrance, J. P., Tamim, H., Mahmud, S. M., Alsabbagh, M. W., Hemmelgarn, B., Dormuth, C. R., and Ernst, P., Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors and the Risk of AKI: A Cohort Study of Eight Administrative Databases and Meta-Analysis, Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, vol. 10, pp. 1716-22, 2015.
M. C. Gulliford, Sun, X., Charlton, J., Winter, J. R., Bunce, C., Boiko, O., Fox, R., Little, P., Moore, M., Hay, A. D., and Ashworth, M., Serious bacterial infections and antibiotic prescribing in primary care: cohort study using electronic health records in the UK, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e036975, 2020.
J. C. Wilson, Sarsour, K., Collinson, N., Tuckwell, K., Musselman, D., Klearman, M., Napalkov, P., Jick, S. S., Stone, J. H., and Meier, C. R., Serious adverse effects associated with glucocorticoid therapy in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA): A nested case-control analysis, Semin Arthritis Rheum, vol. 46, pp. 819-827, 2017.
K. T. Palmer, D'Angelo, S., Harris, E. C., Linaker, C., and Coggon, D., Sensory impairments, problems of balance and accidental injury at work: a case-control study, Occup Environ Med, vol. 72, pp. 195-9, 2015.
R. A. Charlton, McGrogan, A., Snowball, J., Yates, L. M., Wood, A., Clayton-Smith, J., Smithson, W. H., Richardson, J. L., McHugh, N., Thomas, S. H., Baker, G. A., and Bromley, R., Sensitivity of the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink to Detect Neurodevelopmental Effects of Medicine Exposure in Utero: Comparative Analysis of an Antiepileptic Drug-Exposed Cohort, Drug Saf, vol. 40, pp. 387-397, 2017.
S. F. Liang, Taweel, A., Miles, S., Kovalchuk, Y., Spiridou, A., Barratt, B., Hoang, U., Crichton, S., Delaney, B. C., and Wolfe, C., Semi automated transformation to OWL formatted files as an approach to data integration. A feasibility study using environmental, disease register and primary care clinical data, Methods Inf Med, vol. 54, pp. 32-40, 2015.
C. Morgan, Webb, R. T., Carr, M. J., Kontopantelis, E., Chew-Graham, C. A., Kapur, N., and Ashcroft, D. M., Self-harm in a primary care cohort of older people: incidence, clinical management, and risk of suicide and other causes of death, Lancet Psychiatry, vol. 5, pp. 905-912, 2018.
F. Zaccardi, Husemoen, L. L. Nystrup, Thorsted, B. L., Webb, D. R., Paul, S. K., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Selectivity of beta-blockers, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in people with hypoglycaemia: An observational study, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, vol. 29, pp. 481-488, 2019.
C. Becker, Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Cataract Risk: A Case-Control Analysis, Ophthalmology, vol. 124, pp. 1635-1639, 2017.
J. Busby, Mills, K., Zhang, S. D., Liberante, F. G., and Cardwell, C. R., Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use and breast cancer survival: a population-based cohort study, Breast Cancer Res, vol. 20, p. 4, 2018.
M. Gulliford, Latinovic, R., Charlton, J., Little, P., Van Staa, T., and Ashworth, M., Selective decrease in consultations and antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in UK primary care up to 2006, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 31, pp. 512-20, 2009.
E. A. Shephard and Hamilton, W. T., Selection of men for investigation of possible testicular cancer in primary care: a large case-control study using electronic patient records, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 68, pp. e559-e565, 2018.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Ashworth, M., Rudd, A. G., and Toschke, A. M., Selection of medical diagnostic codes for analysis of electronic patient records. Application to stroke in a primary care database, PLoS One, vol. 4, p. e7168, 2009.
P. Imfeld, Bodmer, M., Schuerch, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Seizures in patients with Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia: a population-based nested case-control analysis, Epilepsia, vol. 54, pp. 700-7, 2013.
V. Schneider-Lindner, Quach, C., Hanley, J. A., and Suissa, S., Secular trends of antibacterial prescribing in UK paediatric primary care, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol. 66, pp. 424-33, 2011.
R. Y. van der Velde, Wyers, C. E., Curtis, E. M., Geusens, P., van den Bergh, J. P. W., de Vries, F., Cooper, C., van Staa, T. P., and Harvey, N. C., Secular trends in fracture incidence in the UK between 1990 and 2012, Osteoporos Int, vol. 27, pp. 3197-3206, 2016.
L. A. Garcia Rodriguez and Ruigomez, A., Secondary prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding associated with maintenance acid-suppressing treatment in patients with peptic ulcer bleed, Epidemiology, vol. 10, pp. 228-32, 1999.
S. A. Julious, Campbell, M. J., Bianchi, S. M., and Murray-Thomas, T., Seasonality of medical contacts in school-aged children with asthma: association with school holidays, Public Health, vol. 125, pp. 769-76, 2011.
J. D. Lewis, Aberra, F. N., Lichtenstein, G. R., Bilker, W. B., Brensinger, C., and Strom, B. L., Seasonal variation in flares of inflammatory bowel disease, Gastroenterology, vol. 126, pp. 665-73, 2004.
M. Peppa, Thomas, S. L., Minassian, C., Walker, J. L., McDonald, H. I., Andrews, N. J., Kempley, S. T., and Mangtani, P., Seasonal influenza vaccination during pregnancy and the risk of major congenital malformations in live-born infants: A 2010-2016 historical cohort study, Clin Infect Dis, 2020.
S. Muller, Hider, S., Machin, A., Stack, R., Hayward, R. A., Raza, K., and Mallen, C., Searching for a prodrome for rheumatoid arthritis in the primary care record: A case-control study in the clinical practice research datalink, Semin Arthritis Rheum, 2018.
C. C. Chi, Mayon-White, R. T., and Wojnarowska, F. T., Safety of topical corticosteroids in pregnancy: a population-based cohort study, J Invest Dermatol, vol. 131, pp. 884-91, 2011.
V. 3rd. Lo Re, Haynes, K., Ming, E. E., J. Ives, W., Horne, L. N., Fortier, K., Carbonari, D. M., Hennessy, S., Cardillo, S., Reese, P. P., Reddy, K. R., Margolis, D., Apter, A., Kimmel, S. E., Roy, J., Freeman, C. P., Razzaghi, H., Holick, C. N., Esposito, D. B., van Staa, T. P., Bhullar, H., and Strom, B. L., Safety of saxagliptin: rationale for and design of a series of postmarketing observational studies, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 21, pp. 1202-15, 2012.
L. A. Garcia-Rodriguez, Masso-Gonzalez, E. L., Wallander, M. A., and Johansson, S., The safety of rosuvastatin in comparison with other statins in over 100,000 statin users in UK primary care, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 17, pp. 943-52, 2008.
M. C. Gulliford, Moore, M. V., Little, P., Hay, A. D., Fox, R., Prevost, A. T., Juszczyk, D., Charlton, J., and Ashworth, M., Safety of reduced antibiotic prescribing for self limiting respiratory tract infections in primary care: cohort study using electronic health records, Bmj, vol. 354, p. i3410, 2016.
K. Donegan, King, B., and Bryan, P., Safety of pertussis vaccination in pregnant women in UK: observational study, Bmj, vol. 349, p. g4219, 2014.
P. Bryan, Seabroke, S., Wong, J., Donegan, K., Webb, E., Goldsmith, C., Vipond, C., and Feavers, I., Safety of multicomponent meningococcal group B vaccine (4CMenB) in routine infant immunisation in the UK: a prospective surveillance study, Lancet Child Adolesc Health, vol. 2, pp. 395-403, 2018.
J. R. Hardy, Leaderer, B. P., Holford, T. R., Hall, G. C., and Bracken, M. B., Safety of medications prescribed before and during early pregnancy in a cohort of 81,975 mothers from the UK General Practice Research Database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 15, pp. 555-64, 2006.
D. J. Grint, McDonald, H. I., Walker, J. L., Amirthalingam, G., Andrews, N., and Thomas, S., Safety of inadvertent administration of live zoster vaccine to immunosuppressed individuals in a UK-based observational cohort analysis, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e034886, 2020.
R. A. Charlton, Snowball, J. M., Nightingale, A. L., and Davis, K. J., Safety of Fluticasone Propionate Prescribed for Asthma During Pregnancy: A UK Population-Based Cohort Study, J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, vol. 3, pp. 772-9.e3, 2015.
J. T. Nielen, Dagnelie, P. C., Emans, P. J., Veldhorst-Janssen, N., Lalmohamed, A., van Staa, T. P., Boonen, A. E., van den Bemt, B. J., and de Vries, F., Safety and efficacy of new oral anticoagulants and low-molecular-weight heparins compared with aspirin in patients undergoing total knee and hip replacements, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25, pp. 1245-1252, 2016.
A. Ble, Hughes, P. M., Delgado, J., Masoli, J. A., Bowman, K., Zirk-Sadowski, J., Mota, R. E. Mujica, Henley, W. E., and Melzer, D., Safety and Effectiveness of Statins for Prevention of Recurrent Myocardial Infarction in 12 156 Typical Older Patients: A Quasi-Experimental Study, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, vol. 72, pp. 243-250, 2017.
A. Bottle, Kim, D., Aylin, P., Cowie, M. R., Majeed, A., and Hayhoe, B., Routes to diagnosis of heart failure: observational study using linked data in England, Heart, vol. 104, pp. 600-605, 2018.
M. Riera-Montes, Cattaert, T., and Verstraeten, T. V., Rotavirus vaccination may reduce acute gastroenteritis rates across all age groups in England, Value in Health, vol. 20, p. A780, 2017.
V. Ehrenstein, Hernandez, R. K., Ulrichsen, S. P., Rungby, J., Lash, T. L., Riis, A. H., Li, L., Sorensen, H. T., and Jick, S. S., Rosiglitazone use and post-discontinuation glycaemic control in two European countries, 2000-2010, BMJ Open, vol. 3, p. e003424, 2013.
J. Spoendlin, Karatas, G., Furlano, R. I., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Rosacea in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease: A Population-based Case-control Study, Inflamm Bowel Dis, vol. 22, pp. 680-7, 2016.
K. T. Palmer, D'Angelo, S., Harris, E. C., Linaker, C., and Coggon, D., The role of mental health problems and common psychotropic drug treatments in accidental injury at work: a case-control study, Occup Environ Med, vol. 71, pp. 308-12, 2014.
D. J. Humes and West, J., Role of acute diverticulitis in the development of complicated colonic diverticular disease and 1-year mortality after diagnosis in the UK: population-based cohort study, Gut, vol. 61, pp. 95-100, 2012.
T. A. Althunian, de Boer, A., Groenwold, R. H. H., Rengerink, K. O., Souverein, P. C., and Klungel, O. H., Rivaroxaban was found to be noninferior to warfarin in routine clinical care: A retrospective noninferiority cohort replication study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
A. M. Gallagher, Setakis, E., Plumb, J. M., Clemens, A., and van Staa, T. P., Risks of stroke and mortality associated with suboptimal anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation patients, Thromb Haemost, vol. 106, pp. 968-77, 2011.
R. M. Joseph, Movahedi, M., Dixon, W. G., and Symmons, D. P., Risks of smoking and benefits of smoking cessation on hospitalisations for cardiovascular events and respiratory infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a retrospective cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, RMD Open, vol. 3, p. e000506, 2017.
Y. Vinogradova, Coupland, C., Hill, T., and Hippisley-Cox, J., Risks and benefits of direct oral anticoagulants versus warfarin in a real world setting: cohort study in primary care, Bmj, vol. 362, p. k2505, 2018.
S. Bours, de Vries, F., van den Bergh, J. P. W., Lalmohamed, A., van Staa, T. P., Leufkens, H. G. M., Geusens, P. P. P., Drent, M., and Harvey, N. C., Risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in patients with sarcoidosis: a population-based cohort, Osteoporos Int, vol. 27, pp. 1603-1610, 2016.
F. J. de Abajo and Rodriguez, L. A., Risk of ventricular arrhythmias associated with nonsedating antihistamine drugs, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 47, pp. 307-13, 1999.
C. Vasilakis-Scaramozza and Jick, H., Risk of venous thromboembolism with cyproterone or levonorgestrel contraceptives, Lancet, vol. 358, pp. 1427-9, 2001.
H. E. Seaman, de Vries, C. S., and Farmer, R. D., The risk of venous thromboembolism in women prescribed cyproterone acetate in combination with ethinyl estradiol: a nested cohort analysis and case-control study, Hum Reprod, vol. 18, pp. 522-6, 2003.
C. Vasilakis, Jick, S. S., and Jick, H., The risk of venous thromboembolism in users of postcoital contraceptive pills, Contraception, vol. 59, pp. 79-83, 1999.
L. Parkin, Sharples, K., Hernandez, R. K., and Jick, S. S., Risk of venous thromboembolism in users of oral contraceptives containing drospirenone or levonorgestrel: nested case-control study based on UK General Practice Research Database, Bmj, vol. 342, p. d2139, 2011.
A. J. Walker, Baldwin, D. R., Card, T. R., Powell, H. A., Hubbard, R. B., and Grainge, M. J., Risk of venous thromboembolism in people with lung cancer: a cohort study using linked UK healthcare data, Br J Cancer, vol. 115, pp. 115-21, 2016.
[Page last reviewed 6 July 2020]