Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2770 results:
Author Title [ Type(Asc)] Year
Journal Article
E. Kontopantelis, Stevens, R. J., Helms, P. J., Edwards, D., Doran, T., and Ashcroft, D. M., Spatial distribution of clinical computer systems in primary care in England in 2016 and implications for primary care electronic medical record databases: a cross-sectional population study, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020738, 2018.
D. Abrahami, Douros, A., Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., and Azoulay, L., Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors and the Risk of Fractures Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Care, vol. 42, pp. e150-e152, 2019.
A. Dregan, Charlton, J., Wolfe, C. D., Gulliford, M. C., and Markus, H. S., Is sodium valproate, an HDAC inhibitor, associated with reduced risk of stroke and myocardial infarction? A nested case-control study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 23, pp. 759-67, 2014.
C. Fairhurst, Martin, F., Watt, I., Doran, T., Bland, M., and Brackenbury, W. J., Sodium channel-inhibiting drugs and cancer survival: protocol for a cohort study using the CPRD primary care database, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e011661, 2016.
R. P. Cornish, Boyd, A., Van Staa, T., Salisbury, C., and Macleod, J., Socio-economic position and childhood multimorbidity: a study using linkage between the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children and the General Practice Research Database, Int J Equity Health, vol. 12, p. 66, 2013.
M. S. Chan, van den Hout, A., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Jones, M. M., Matthews, F. E., Jagger, C., Raine, R., and Bajekal, M., Socio-economic inequalities in life expectancy of older adults with and without multimorbidity: a record linkage study of 1.1 million people in England, Int J Epidemiol, 2019.
M. Weldegiorgis, Smith, M., Herrington, W. G., Bankhead, C., and Woodward, M., Socioeconomic disadvantage and the risk of advanced chronic kidney disease: results from a cohort study with 1.4 million participants, Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 2019.
M. Rafiq, Hayward, A., Warren-Gash, C., Denaxas, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Lyratzopoulos, G., and Thomas, S., Socioeconomic deprivation and regional variation in Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence in the UK: a population-based cohort study of 10 million individuals, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e029228, 2019.
M. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Bhattarai, N., and Rudisill, C., Social and material deprivation and the cost-effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity: cohort study and Markov model, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 36, pp. 674-83, 2014.
R. M. Joseph, Movahedi, M., Dixon, W. G., and Symmons, D. P., Smoking-Related Mortality in Patients With Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), vol. 68, pp. 1598-1606, 2016.
C. Alexakis, Saxena, S., Chhaya, V., Cecil, E., Majeed, A., and Pollok, R., Smoking Status at Diagnosis and Subsequent Smoking Cessation: Associations With Corticosteroid Use and Intestinal Resection in Crohn's Disease, Am J Gastroenterol, vol. 113, pp. 1689-1700, 2018.
K. H. Thomas, Martin, R. M., Davies, N. M., Metcalfe, C., Windmeijer, F., and Gunnell, D., Smoking cessation treatment and risk of depression, suicide, and self harm in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink: prospective cohort study, Bmj, vol. 347, p. f5704, 2013.
R. Boggon, Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., Raju, S., Malvestiti, F. M., and van Staa, T. P., Smoking cessation interventions following acute coronary syndrome: a missed opportunity?, Eur J Prev Cardiol, vol. 21, pp. 767-73, 2014.
J. V. Been, Szatkowski, L., van Staa, T. P., Leufkens, H. G., van Schayck, O. C., Sheikh, A., de Vries, F., and Souverein, P., Smoke-free legislation and the incidence of paediatric respiratory infections and wheezing/asthma: interrupted time series analyses in the four UK nations, Sci Rep, vol. 5, p. 15246, 2015.
X. Xiao, Fischbach, S., Zhang, T., Chen, C., Sheng, Q., Zimmerman, R., Patnaik, S., Fusco, J., Ming, Y., Guo, P., Shiota, C., Prasadan, K., Gangopadhyay, N., Husain, S. Z., Dong, H., and Gittes, G. K., SMAD3/Stat3 Signaling Mediates beta-Cell Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Chronic Pancreatitis-Related Diabetes, Diabetes, vol. 66, pp. 2646-2658, 2017.
K. T. Palmer, D'Angelo, S., Harris, E. C., Linaker, C., Sayer, A. A., Gale, C. R., Evandrou, M., Van Staa, T., Cooper, C., and Coggon, D., Sleep disturbance and the older worker: findings from the Health and Employment after Fifty study, Scand J Work Environ Health, vol. 43, pp. 136-145, 2017.
D. F. Carr, O'Meara, H., Jorgensen, A. L., Campbell, J., Hobbs, M., McCann, G., Van Staa, T., and Pirmohamed, M., SLCO1B1 genetic variant associated with statin-induced myopathy: a proof-of-concept study using the clinical practice research datalink, Clin Pharmacol Ther, vol. 94, pp. 695-701, 2013.
R. L. Tannen, Weiner, M. G., Xie, D., and Barnhart, K., A simulation using data from a primary care practice database closely replicated the women's health initiative trial, J Clin Epidemiol, vol. 60, pp. 686-95, 2007.
R. L. Tannen, Weiner, M. G., and Marcus, S. M., Simulation of the Syst-Eur randomized control trial using a primary care electronic medical record was feasible, J Clin Epidemiol, vol. 59, pp. 254-64, 2006.
T. P. van Staa, Geusens, P., Pols, H. A., de Laet, C., Leufkens, H. G., and Cooper, C., A simple score for estimating the long-term risk of fracture in patients using oral glucocorticoids, Qjm, vol. 98, pp. 191-8, 2005.
M. T. Bazelier, van Staa, T. P., Uitdehaag, B. M., Cooper, C., Leufkens, H. G., Vestergaard, P., Bentzen, J., and de Vries, F., A simple score for estimating the long-term risk of fracture in patients with multiple sclerosis, Neurology, vol. 79, pp. 922-8, 2012.
R. S. Padwal, Klarenbach, S. W., Wang, X., Sharma, A. M., Karmali, S., Birch, D. W., and Majumdar, S. R., A simple prediction rule for all-cause mortality in a cohort eligible for bariatric surgery, JAMA Surg, vol. 148, pp. 1109-15, 2013.
P. C. Prieto, Ibrahim, F., Campbell, R., Chinoy, H., Galloway, J., and Gordon, P., Similar risk of cardiovascular events in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and rheumatoid arthritis in the first 5 years after diagnosis, Clin Rheumatol, 2020.
T. M. McKeever, Lewis, S. A., Smith, C., Collins, J., Heatlie, H., Frischer, M., and Hubbard, R., Siblings, multiple births, and the incidence of allergic disease: a birth cohort study using the West Midlands general practice research database, Thorax, vol. 56, pp. 758-62, 2001.
M. Frischer, Heatlie, H., Chapman, S., Norwood, J., Bashford, J., and Millson, D., Should the corticosteroid to bronchodilator ratio be promoted as a quality prescribing marker?, Public Health, vol. 113, pp. 247-50, 1999.
V. Palin, Welfare, W., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Shorter and longer courses of antibiotics for common infections and the association with reductions of infection-related complications including hospital admissions, Clin Infect Dis, 2021.
S. Weir, Samnaliev, M., Kuo, T. C., Tierney, T. S., S. Autiero, W., Taylor, R. S., and Schrag, A., Short- and long-term cost and utilization of health care resources in Parkinson's disease in the UK, Mov Disord, vol. 33, pp. 974-981, 2018.
V. C. Brunetti, Reynier, P., Azoulay, L., Yu, O. H. Y., Ernst, P., Platt, R. W., and Filion, K. B., SGLT-2 inhibitors and the risk of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia: A population-based cohort study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2021.
M. A. Cavender, Norhammar, A., Birkeland, K. I., Jorgensen, M. E., Wilding, J. P., Khunti, K., Fu, A. Z., Bodegard, J., Blak, B. T., Wittbrodt, E., Thuresson, M., Fenici, P., Hammar, N., and Kosiborod, M., SGLT-2 Inhibitors and Cardiovascular Risk: An Analysis of CVD-REAL, J Am Coll Cardiol, vol. 71, pp. 2497-2506, 2018.
J. M. Dennis, Henley, W. E., Weedon, M. N., Lonergan, M., Rodgers, L. R., Jones, A. G., Hamilton, W. T., Sattar, N., Janmohamed, S., Holman, R. R., Pearson, E. R., Shields, B. M., and Hattersley, A. T., Sex and BMI Alter the Benefits and Risks of Sulfonylureas and Thiazolidinediones in Type 2 Diabetes: A Framework for Evaluating Stratification Using Routine Clinical and Individual Trial Data, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 1844-1853, 2018.
K. M. Abel, Heatlie, H. F., Howard, L. M., and Webb, R. T., Sex- and age-specific incidence of fractures in mental illness: a historical, population-based cohort study, J Clin Psychiatry, vol. 69, pp. 1398-403, 2008.
R. K. Akyea, Vinogradova, Y., Qureshi, N., Patel, R. S., Kontopantelis, E., Ntaios, G., Asselbergs, F. W., Kai, J., and Weng, S. F., Sex, Age, and Socioeconomic Differences in Nonfatal Stroke Incidence and Subsequent Major Adverse Outcomes, Stroke, vol. 52, pp. 396-405, 2021.
F. de Vries, van Staa, T. P., Bracke, M. S., Cooper, C., Leufkens, H. G., and Lammers, J. W., Severity of obstructive airway disease and risk of osteoporotic fracture, Eur Respir J, vol. 25, pp. 879-84, 2005.
H. P. Booth, Prevost, A. T., and Gulliford, M. C., Severity of obesity and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and smoking in primary care: population-based cohort study, J Hum Hypertens, vol. 30, pp. 40-5, 2016.
J. T. Nielen, Emans, P. J., Dagnelie, P. C., Boonen, A., Lalmohamed, A., de Boer, A., van den Bemt, B. J., and de Vries, F., Severity of Diabetes Mellitus and Total Hip or Knee Replacement: A Population-Based Case-Control Study, Medicine (Baltimore), vol. 95, p. e3739, 2016.
M. Iwagami, Mansfield, K. E., Hayes, J. F., Walters, K., Osborn, D. P., Smeeth, L., Nitsch, D., and Tomlinson, L. A., Severe mental illness and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study in the United Kingdom, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 421-429, 2018.
F. Zaccardi, Ling, S., Lawson, C., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Severe hypoglycaemia and absolute risk of cause-specific mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a UK primary care observational study, Diabetologia, 2020.
R. J. Silverwood, Forbes, H. J., Abuabara, K., Ascott, A., Schmidt, M., Schmidt, S. A. J., Smeeth, L., and Langan, S. M., Severe and predominantly active atopic eczema in adulthood and long term risk of cardiovascular disease: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 361, p. k1786, 2018.
H. Furuland, McEwan, P., Evans, M., Linde, C., Ayoubkhani, D., Bakhai, A., Palaka, E., Bennett, H., and Qin, L., Serum potassium as a predictor of adverse clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease: new risk equations using the UK clinical practice research datalink, BMC Nephrol, vol. 19, p. 211, 2018.
C. Linde, Qin, L., Bakhai, A., Furuland, H., Evans, M., Ayoubkhani, D., Palaka, E., Bennett, H., and McEwan, P., Serum potassium and clinical outcomes in heart failure patients: results of risk calculations in 21 334 patients in the UK, ESC Heart Fail, 2019.
M. Schmidt, Mansfield, K. E., Bhaskaran, K., Nitsch, D., Sorensen, H. T., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., Serum creatinine elevation after renin-angiotensin system blockade and long term cardiorenal risks: cohort study, Bmj, vol. 356, p. j791, 2017.
C. Renoux, Lix, L. M., Patenaude, V., Bresee, L. C., Paterson, J. M., Lafrance, J. P., Tamim, H., Mahmud, S. M., Alsabbagh, M. W., Hemmelgarn, B., Dormuth, C. R., and Ernst, P., Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors and the Risk of AKI: A Cohort Study of Eight Administrative Databases and Meta-Analysis, Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, vol. 10, pp. 1716-22, 2015.
M. C. Gulliford, Sun, X., Charlton, J., Winter, J. R., Bunce, C., Boiko, O., Fox, R., Little, P., Moore, M., Hay, A. D., and Ashworth, M., Serious bacterial infections and antibiotic prescribing in primary care: cohort study using electronic health records in the UK, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e036975, 2020.
J. C. Wilson, Sarsour, K., Collinson, N., Tuckwell, K., Musselman, D., Klearman, M., Napalkov, P., Jick, S. S., Stone, J. H., and Meier, C. R., Serious adverse effects associated with glucocorticoid therapy in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA): A nested case-control analysis, Semin Arthritis Rheum, vol. 46, pp. 819-827, 2017.
E. Rezel-Potts and Gulliford, M. C., Sepsis recording in primary care electronic health records, linked hospital episodes and mortality records: Population-based cohort study in England, PLoS One, vol. 15, p. e0244764, 2020.
K. T. Palmer, D'Angelo, S., Harris, E. C., Linaker, C., and Coggon, D., Sensory impairments, problems of balance and accidental injury at work: a case-control study, Occup Environ Med, vol. 72, pp. 195-9, 2015.
R. A. Charlton, McGrogan, A., Snowball, J., Yates, L. M., Wood, A., Clayton-Smith, J., Smithson, W. H., Richardson, J. L., McHugh, N., Thomas, S. H., Baker, G. A., and Bromley, R., Sensitivity of the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink to Detect Neurodevelopmental Effects of Medicine Exposure in Utero: Comparative Analysis of an Antiepileptic Drug-Exposed Cohort, Drug Saf, vol. 40, pp. 387-397, 2017.
S. F. Liang, Taweel, A., Miles, S., Kovalchuk, Y., Spiridou, A., Barratt, B., Hoang, U., Crichton, S., Delaney, B. C., and Wolfe, C., Semi automated transformation to OWL formatted files as an approach to data integration. A feasibility study using environmental, disease register and primary care clinical data, Methods Inf Med, vol. 54, pp. 32-40, 2015.
C. Morgan, Webb, R. T., Carr, M. J., Kontopantelis, E., Chew-Graham, C. A., Kapur, N., and Ashcroft, D. M., Self-harm in a primary care cohort of older people: incidence, clinical management, and risk of suicide and other causes of death, Lancet Psychiatry, vol. 5, pp. 905-912, 2018.
F. Zaccardi, Husemoen, L. L. Nystrup, Thorsted, B. L., Webb, D. R., Paul, S. K., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Selectivity of beta-blockers, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in people with hypoglycaemia: An observational study, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, vol. 29, pp. 481-488, 2019.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]