Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,800 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 July 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 4MB, 236 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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S. J. Sinnott, Smeeth, L., Williamson, E., and Douglas, I. J., Trends for prevalence and incidence of resistant hypertension: population based cohort study in the UK 1995-2015, Bmj, vol. 358, p. j3984, 2017.
H. K. Bronsveld, Peeters, P., de Groot, M. C. H., de Boer, A., Schmidt, M. K., and De Bruin, M. L., Trends in breast cancer incidence among women with type-2 diabetes in British general practice, Prim Care Diabetes, vol. 11, pp. 373-382, 2017.
K. Donegan, Fox, N., Black, N., Livingston, G., Banerjee, S., and Burns, A., Trends in diagnosis and treatment for people with dementia in the UK from 2005 to 2015: a longitudinal retrospective cohort study, Lancet Public Health, vol. 2, pp. e149-e156, 2017.
A. Taqi, Otete, H., and Knaggs, R. D., Trends in opioid prescribing in primary care patients with knee osteoarthritis: A population based observational study, Value in Health, vol. 20, pp. A540-A541, 2017.
R. Y. van der Velde, Wyers, C. E., Teesselink, E., Geusens, P., van den Bergh, J. P. W., de Vries, F., Cooper, C., Harvey, N. C., and van Staa, T. P., Trends in oral anti-osteoporosis drug prescription in the United Kingdom between 1990 and 2012: Variation by age, sex, geographic location and ethnicity, Bone, vol. 94, pp. 50-55, 2017.
J. L. Walker, Andrews, N. J., Mathur, R., Smeeth, L., and Thomas, S. L., Trends in the burden of varicella in UK general practice, Epidemiol Infect, vol. 145, pp. 2678-2682, 2017.
S. M. Collin, Bakken, I. J., Nazareth, I., Crawley, E., and White, P. D., Trends in the incidence of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia in the UK, 2001-2013: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink study, J R Soc Med, vol. 110, pp. 231-244, 2017.
S. Y. Loo, Dell'Aniello, S., Huiart, L., and Renoux, C., Trends in the prescription of novel oral anticoagulants in UK primary care, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 83, pp. 2096-2106, 2017.
M. Pang, Schuster, T., Filion, K. B., Eberg, M., and Platt, R. W., Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Pharmacoepidemiologic Research, Epidemiology, vol. 27, pp. 570-7, 2016.
C. Martinez, Suissa, S., Rietbrock, S., Katholing, A., Freedman, B., Cohen, A. T., and Handelsman, D. J., Testosterone treatment and risk of venous thromboembolism: population based case-control study, Bmj, vol. 355, p. i5968, 2016.
E. Herrett, Williamson, E., Van Staa, T., Ranopa, M., Free, C., Chadborn, T., Goldacre, B., and Smeeth, L., Text messaging reminders for influenza vaccine in primary care: a cluster randomised controlled trial (TXT4FLUJAB), BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e010069, 2016.
C. Martinez, Katholing, A., Wallenhorst, C., and Freedman, S. B., Therapy persistence in newly diagnosed non-valvular atrial fibrillation treated with warfarin or NOAC. A cohort study, Thromb Haemost, vol. 115, pp. 31-9, 2016.
I. M. Carey, Anderson, H. R., Atkinson, R. W., Beevers, S., Cook, D. G., Dajnak, D., Gulliver, J., and Kelly, F. J., Traffic pollution and the incidence of cardiorespiratory outcomes in an adult cohort in London, Occup Environ Med, vol. 73, pp. 849-856, 2016.
J. Bedson, Chen, Y., Hayward, R. A., Ashworth, J., Walters, K., Dunn, K. M., and Jordan, K. P., Trends in long-term opioid prescribing in primary care patients with musculoskeletal conditions: an observational database study, Pain, vol. 157, pp. 1525-31, 2016.
N. Frey, Hugle, T., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., Type II diabetes mellitus and incident osteoarthritis of the hand: a population-based case-control analysis, Osteoarthritis Cartilage, vol. 24, pp. 1535-40, 2016.
J. Busby, Schroeder, K., Woltersdorf, W., Sterne, J. A., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Hay, A., and Hollingworth, W., Temporal growth and geographic variation in the use of laboratory tests by NHS general practices: using routine data to identify research priorities, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 63, pp. e256-66, 2013.
K. Alexandropoulou, van Vlymen, J., Reid, F., Poullis, A., and Kang, J. Y., Temporal trends of Barrett's oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal reflux and related oesophageal cancer over a 10-year period in England and Wales and associated proton pump inhibitor and H2RA prescriptions: a GPRD study, Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol. 25, pp. 15-21, 2013.
A. C. Scowcroft, Lee, S., and Mant, J., Thromboprophylaxis of elderly patients with AF in the UK: an analysis using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) 2000-2009, Heart, vol. 99, pp. 127-32, 2013.
C. Martinez, Jones, R. W., and Rietbrock, S., Trends in the prevalence of antipsychotic drug use among patients with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias including those treated with antidementia drugs in the community in the UK: a cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 3, 2013.
E. Herrett, George, J., Denaxas, S., Bhaskaran, K., Timmis, A., Hemingway, H., and Smeeth, L., Type and timing of heralding in ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: an analysis of prospectively collected electronic healthcare records linked to the national registry of acute coronary syndromes, Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care, vol. 2, pp. 235-45, 2013.
K. B. Filion, Joseph, L., Boivin, J. F., Suissa, S., and Brophy, J. M., Thiazolidinediones and the risk of incident congestive heart failure among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 20, pp. 785-96, 2011.
A. D. Shah, Nicholas, O., Timmis, A. D., Feder, G., Abrams, K. R., Chen, R., Hingorani, A. D., and Hemingway, H., Threshold haemoglobin levels and the prognosis of stable coronary disease: two new cohorts and a systematic review and meta-analysis, PLoS Med, vol. 8, p. e1000439, 2011.
A. Lafuma, Salmon, J. F., Robert, J., and Berdeaux, G., Treatment persistence and cost-effectiveness of latanoprost/latanoprost-timolol, bimatoprost/bimatoprost-timolol, and travoprost/travoprost-timolol in glaucoma: an analysis based on the United Kingdom general practitioner research database, Clin Ophthalmol, vol. 5, pp. 361-7, 2011.
A. K. Imkampe and Gulliford, M. C., Trends in Type 1 diabetes incidence in the UK in 0- to 14-year-olds and in 15- to 34-year-olds, 1991-2008, Diabet Med, vol. 28, pp. 811-4, 2011.
A. J. Walker, Card, T., Bates, T. E., and Muir, K., Tricyclic antidepressants and the incidence of certain cancers: a study using the GPRD, Br J Cancer, vol. 104, pp. 193-7, 2011.
D. J. Culliford, Maskell, J., Beard, D. J., Murray, D. W., Price, A. J., and Arden, N. K., Temporal trends in hip and knee replacement in the United Kingdom: 1991 to 2006, J Bone Joint Surg Br, vol. 92, pp. 130-5, 2010.
L. Azoulay, Schneider-Lindner, V., Dell'Aniello, S., Filion, K. B., and Suissa, S., Thiazolidinediones and the risk of incident strokes in patients with type 2 diabetes: a nested case-control study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 19, pp. 343-50, 2010.
A. Sarpatwari, Bennett, D., Logie, J. W., Shukla, A., Beach, K. J., Newland, A. C., Sanderson, S., and Provan, D., Thromboembolic events among adult patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia in the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database, Haematologica, vol. 95, pp. 1167-75, 2010.
C. Renoux, Dell'Aniello, S., Garbe, E., and Suissa, S., Transdermal and oral hormone replacement therapy and the risk of stroke: a nested case-control study, Bmj, vol. 340, p. c2519, 2010.
M. R. MacDonald, Eurich, D. T., Majumdar, S. R., Lewsey, J. D., Bhagra, S., Jhund, P. S., Petrie, M. C., McMurray, J. J., Petrie, J. R., and McAlister, F. A., Treatment of type 2 diabetes and outcomes in patients with heart failure: a nested case-control study from the U.K. General Practice Research Database, Diabetes Care, vol. 33, pp. 1213-8, 2010.
[Page last reviewed 5 July 2021]