Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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R. B. Weinstein, Ryan, P., Berlin, J. A., Matcho, A., Schuemie, M., Swerdel, J., Patel, K., and Fife, D., Channeling in the Use of Nonprescription Paracetamol and Ibuprofen in an Electronic Medical Records Database: Evidence and Implications, Drug Saf, vol. 40, pp. 1279-1292, 2017.
C. Miani, Martin, A., Exley, J., Doble, B., Wilson, E., Payne, R., Avery, A., Meads, C., Kirtley, A., Jones, M. M., and King, S., Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of issuing longer versus shorter duration (3-month vs. 28-day) prescriptions in patients with chronic conditions: systematic review and economic modelling, Health Technol Assess, vol. 21, pp. 1-128, 2017.
S. A. Stapley, Rubin, G. P., Alsina, D., Shephard, E. A., Rutter, M. D., and Hamilton, W. T., Clinical features of bowel disease in patients aged <50 years in primary care: a large case-control study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 67, pp. e336-e344, 2017.
S. E. Bailey, Ukoumunne, O. C., Shephard, E. A., and Hamilton, W., Clinical relevance of thrombocytosis in primary care: a prospective cohort study of cancer incidence using English electronic medical records and cancer registry data, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 67, pp. e405-e413, 2017.
L. R. Rodgers, Weedon, M. N., Henley, W. E., Hattersley, A. T., and Shields, B. M., Cohort profile for the MASTERMIND study: using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) to investigate stratification of response to treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e017989, 2017.
S. Venkatesan, Myles, P. R., Manning, H. J., Mozid, A. M., Andersson, C., Jorgensen, M. E., Hardman, J. G., Moonesinghe, S. R., Foex, P., Mythen, M., Grocott, M. P. W., and Sanders, R. D., Cohort study of preoperative blood pressure and risk of 30-day mortality after elective non-cardiac surgery, Br J Anaesth, vol. 119, pp. 65-77, 2017.
O. B. Sanni, Menamin, U. C. Mc, Cardwell, C. R., Sharp, L., Murray, L. J., and Coleman, H. G., Commonly used medications and endometrial cancer survival: a population-based cohort study, Br J Cancer, vol. 117, pp. 432-438, 2017.
L. T. A. Mounce, Price, S., Valderas, J. M., and Hamilton, W., Comorbid conditions delay diagnosis of colorectal cancer: a cohort study using electronic primary care records, Br J Cancer, vol. 116, pp. 1536-1543, 2017.
C. S. Murray, Thomas, M., Richardson, K., Price, D. B., and Turner, S. W., Comparative Effectiveness of Step-up Therapies in Children with Asthma Prescribed Inhaled Corticosteroids: A Historical Cohort Study, J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, vol. 5, pp. 1082-1090.e7, 2017.
T. Sheppard, Tamblyn, R., Abrahamowicz, M., Lunt, M., Sperrin, M., and Dixon, W. G., A comparison of methods for estimating the temporal change in a continuous variable: Example of HbA1c in patients with diabetes, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 1474-1482, 2017.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Concurrent use of long-acting bronchodilators in COPD and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, Eur Respir J, vol. 49, 2017.
S. Skrtic, Cabrera, C., Olsson, M., Schnecke, V., and Lind, M., Contemporary risk estimates of three HbA1c variables in relation to heart failure following diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, Heart, vol. 103, pp. 353-358, 2017.
P. Tammes, Purdy, S., Salisbury, C., MacKichan, F., Lasserson, D., and Morris, R. W., Continuity of Primary Care and Emergency Hospital Admissions Among Older Patients in England, Ann Fam Med, vol. 15, pp. 515-522, 2017.
S. J. Ronaldson, Raghunath, A., Torgerson, D. J., and Van Staa, T., Cost-effectiveness of antibiotics for COPD management: observational analysis using CPRD data, ERJ Open Res, vol. 3, 2017.
J. Leal, Gray, A. M., Hawley, S., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Delmestri, A., Arden, N. K., Cooper, C., Javaid, M. K., and Judge, A., Cost-Effectiveness of Orthogeriatric and Fracture Liaison Service Models of Care for Hip Fracture Patients: A Population-Based Study, J Bone Miner Res, vol. 32, pp. 203-211, 2017.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Prevost, T., Booth, H., Fildes, A., Ashworth, M., Littlejohns, P., Reddy, M., Khan, O., and Rudisill, C., Costs and Outcomes of Increasing Access to Bariatric Surgery: Cohort Study and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Using Electronic Health Records, Value Health, vol. 20, pp. 85-92, 2017.
C. Francois, Tanasescu, A., Lamy, F. X., Despiegel, N., Falissard, B., Chalem, Y., Lancon, C., Llorca, P. M., Saragoussi, D., Verpillat, P., Wade, A. G., and Zighed, D. A., Creating an index to measure health state of depressed patients in automated healthcare databases: the methodology, J Mark Access Health Policy, vol. 5, p. 1372025, 2017.
L. Grimaldi-Bensouda, Klungel, O., Kurz, X., de Groot, M. C., Afonso, A. S. Maciel, De Bruin, M. L., Reynolds, R., and Rossignol, M., Calcium channel blockers and cancer: a risk analysis using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e009147, 2016.
C. Canavan, West, J., and Card, T., Calculating Total Health Service Utilisation and Costs from Routinely Collected Electronic Health Records Using the Example of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Before and After Their First Gastroenterology Appointment, Pharmacoeconomics, vol. 34, pp. 181-94, 2016.
V. M. Walker, Davies, N. M., Jones, T., Kehoe, P. G., and Martin, R. M., Can commonly prescribed drugs be repurposed for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases? Protocol for an observational cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 6, p. e012044, 2016.
J. K. Quint, Millett, E. R., Joshi, M., Navaratnam, V., Thomas, S. L., Hurst, J. R., Smeeth, L., and Brown, J. S., Changes in the incidence, prevalence and mortality of bronchiectasis in the UK from 2004 to 2013: a population-based cohort study, Eur Respir J, vol. 47, pp. 186-93, 2016.
H. P. Booth, Khan, O., Fildes, A., Prevost, A. T., Reddy, M., Charlton, J., and Gulliford, M. C., Changing Epidemiology of Bariatric Surgery in the UK: Cohort Study Using Primary Care Electronic Health Records, Obes Surg, vol. 26, pp. 1900-5, 2016.
S. L. Stevens, Stevens, R. J., Hobbs, F. D., and Lasserson, D. S., Chronic renal disease is not chronic kidney disease: implications for use of the QRISK and Joint British Societies risk scores, Fam Pract, vol. 33, pp. 57-60, 2016.
K. Khunti, Nikolajsen, A., Thorsted, B. L., Andersen, M., Davies, M. J., and Paul, S. K., Clinical inertia with regard to intensifying therapy in people with type 2 diabetes treated with basal insulin, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 18, pp. 401-9, 2016.
M. J. Carr, Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., While, D., Awenat, Y., Cooper, J., Chew-Graham, C., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Clinical management following self-harm in a UK-wide primary care cohort, J Affect Disord, vol. 197, pp. 182-8, 2016.
F. D. R. Hobbs, Bankhead, C., Mukhtar, T., Stevens, S., Perera-Salazar, R., Holt, T., and Salisbury, C., Clinical workload in UK primary care: a retrospective analysis of 100 million consultations in England, 2007-14, Lancet, vol. 387, pp. 2323-2330, 2016.
M. J. Brodie, Chung, S., Wade, A., Quelen, C., Guiraud-Diawara, A., Francois, C., Verpillat, P., Shen, V., and Isojarvi, J., Clobazam and clonazepam use in epilepsy: Results from a UK database incident user cohort study, Epilepsy Res, vol. 123, pp. 68-74, 2016.
F. Othman, Crooks, C. J., and Card, T. R., Community acquired pneumonia incidence before and after proton pump inhibitor prescription: population based study, Bmj, vol. 355, p. i5813, 2016.
C. F. Kuo, Grainge, M. J., Mallen, C., Zhang, W., and Doherty, M., Comorbidities in patients with gout prior to and following diagnosis: case-control study, Ann Rheum Dis, vol. 75, pp. 210-7, 2016.
F. Nyberg, Horne, L., Morlock, R., Nuevo, J., Storgard, C., Aiyer, L., Hines, D. M., Ansolabehere, X., and Chevalier, P., Comorbidity Burden in Trial-Aligned Patients with Established Gout in Germany, UK, US, and France: a Retrospective Analysis, Adv Ther, vol. 33, pp. 1180-98, 2016.
R. G. de Jong, Gallagher, A. M., Herrett, E., Masclee, A. A., Janssen-Heijnen, M. L., and de Vries, F., Comparability of the age and sex distribution of the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and the total Dutch population, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25, pp. 1460-1464, 2016.
J. M. Gamble, Thomas, J. M., Twells, L. K., Midodzi, W. K., and Majumdar, S. R., Comparative effectiveness of incretin-based therapies and the risk of death and cardiovascular events in 38,233 metformin monotherapy users, Medicine (Baltimore), vol. 95, p. e3995, 2016.
E. Berni, Butler, C. C., Jenkins-Jones, S., de Voogd, H., Ouwens, M., Morgan, C. L., and Currie, C. J., Comparative estimated effectiveness of antibiotic classes as initial and secondary treatments of respiratory tract infections: longitudinal analysis of routine data from UK primary care 1991-2012, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 32, pp. 1023-32, 2016.
S. S. Zghebi, Steinke, D. T., Rutter, M. K., Emsley, R. A., and Ashcroft, D. M., Comparative risk of major cardiovascular events associated with second-line antidiabetic treatments: a retrospective cohort study using UK primary care data linked to hospitalization and mortality records, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 18, pp. 916-24, 2016.
A. Brown, Kirichek, O., Balkwill, A., Reeves, G., Beral, V., Sudlow, C., Gallacher, J., and Green, J., Comparison of dementia recorded in routinely collected hospital admission data in England with dementia recorded in primary care, Emerg Themes Epidemiol, vol. 13, p. 11, 2016.
L. Watson, Das, R., Farquhar, R., Langerman, H., and Barnett, A. H., Consequences of delaying treatment intensification in type 2 diabetes: evidence from a UK database, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 32, pp. 1465-75, 2016.
D. A. Rees, Jenkins-Jones, S., and Morgan, C. L., Contemporary Reproductive Outcomes for Patients With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Retrospective Observational Study, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol. 101, pp. 1664-72, 2016.
A. D. Morgan, Herrett, E., De Stavola, B. L., Smeeth, L., and Quint, J. K., COPD disease severity and the risk of venous thromboembolic events: a matched case-control study, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 11, pp. 899-908, 2016.
E. Merinopoulou, Raluy-Callado, M., Ramagopalan, S., MacLachlan, S., and Khalid, J. M., COPD exacerbations by disease severity in England, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 11, pp. 697-709, 2016.
A. W. Lim, Landy, R., Castanon, A., Hollingworth, A., Hamilton, W., Dudding, N., and Sasieni, P., Cytology in the diagnosis of cervical cancer in symptomatic young women: a retrospective review, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 66, pp. e871-e879, 2016.
D. A. Springate, Ashcroft, D. M., Kontopantelis, E., Doran, T., Ryan, R., and Reeves, D., Can analyses of electronic patient records be independently and externally validated? Study 2–the effect of beta-adrenoceptor blocker therapy on cancer survival: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 5, p. e007299, 2015.
E. S. Petherick, Pickett, K. E., and Cullum, N. A., Can different primary care databases produce comparable estimates of burden of disease: results of a study exploring venous leg ulceration, Fam Pract, vol. 32, pp. 374-80, 2015.
A. Judge, Wallace, G., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Arden, N. K., and Edwards, C. J., Can the publication of guidelines change the management of early rheumatoid arthritis? An interrupted time series analysis from the United Kingdom, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 54, pp. 2244-8, 2015.
A. A. Sultan, Crooks, C. J., Card, T., Tata, L. J., Fleming, K. M., and West, J., Causes of death in people with coeliac disease in England compared with the general population: a competing risk analysis, Gut, vol. 64, pp. 1220-6, 2015.
T. Kendrick, Stuart, B., Newell, C., Geraghty, A. W., and Moore, M., Changes in rates of recorded depression in English primary care 2003-2013: Time trend analyses of effects of the economic recession, and the GP contract quality outcomes framework (QOF), J Affect Disord, vol. 180, pp. 68-78, 2015.
Y. S. Punekar, Landis, S. H., Wurst, K., and Le, H., Characteristics, disease burden and costs of COPD patients in the two years following initiation of long-acting bronchodilators in UK primary care, Respir Res, vol. 16, p. 141, 2015.
C. H. van Jaarsveld and Gulliford, M. C., Childhood obesity trends from primary care electronic health records in England between 1994 and 2013: population-based cohort study, Arch Dis Child, vol. 100, pp. 214-9, 2015.
H. I. McDonald, Thomas, S. L., Millett, E. R., and Nitsch, D., CKD and the risk of acute, community-acquired infections among older people with diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records, Am J Kidney Dis, vol. 66, pp. 60-8, 2015.
B. M. Hicks, Murray, L. J., Hughes, C., and Cardwell, C. R., Clopidogrel use and cancer-specific mortality: a population-based cohort study of colorectal, breast and prostate cancer patients, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 24, pp. 830-40, 2015.
K. J. Rothnie, Smeeth, L., Herrett, E., Pearce, N., Hemingway, H., Wedzicha, J., Timmis, A., and Quint, J. K., Closing the mortality gap after a myocardial infarction in people with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Heart, vol. 101, pp. 1103-10, 2015.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]