Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,800 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 July 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 4MB, 236 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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J. M. Gelfand, Shin, D. B., Neimann, A. L., Wang, X., Margolis, D. J., and Troxel, A. B., The risk of lymphoma in patients with psoriasis, J Invest Dermatol, vol. 126, pp. 2194-201, 2006.
J. M. Gelfand, Troxel, A. B., Lewis, J. D., Kurd, S. K., Shin, D. B., Wang, X., Margolis, D. J., and Strom, B. L., The risk of mortality in patients with psoriasis: results from a population-based study, Arch Dermatol, vol. 143, pp. 1493-9, 2007.
J. M. Gelfand, Dommasch, E. D., Shin, D. B., Azfar, R. S., Kurd, S. K., Wang, X., and Troxel, A. B., The risk of stroke in patients with psoriasis, J Invest Dermatol, vol. 129, pp. 2411-8, 2009.
A. V. Gayle, Axson, E. L., Bloom, C. I., Navaratnam, V., and Quint, J. K., Changing causes of death for patients with chronic respiratory disease in England, 2005-2015, Thorax, 2019.
A. Gayle, Dickinson, S., Poole, C., Pang, M., Fauconnot, O., and Quint, J. K., Incidence of type II diabetes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a nested case-control study, NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, vol. 29, p. 28, 2019.
A. Gayle, Tebboth, A., Pang, M., Guelfucci, F., Argoubi, R., Sherman, S., and Mak, V., Real-life prescribing of asthmatic treatments in UK general practice over time using 2014 BTS/SIGN steps, NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, vol. 29, p. 25, 2019.
A. Gayle, Schoof, N., Alves, M., Clarke, D., Raabe, C., Das, P., Del Galdo, F., and Maher, T. M., Healthcare Resource Utilization Among Patients in England with Systemic Sclerosis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease: A Retrospective Database Analysis, Adv Ther, 2020.
A. Gauthier, Breuer, J., Carrington, D., Martin, M., and Remy, V., Epidemiology and cost of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in the United Kingdom, Epidemiol Infect, vol. 137, pp. 38-47, 2009.
C. Gasse, Derby, L., Vasilakis-Scaramozza, C., and Jick, H., Incidence of first-time idiopathic seizures in users of tramadol, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 20, pp. 629-34, 2000.
C. Gasse, Derby, L. E., Vasilakis, C., and Jick, H., Risk of suicide among users of calcium channel blockers: population based, nested case-control study, Bmj, vol. 320, p. 1251, 2000.
C. Gasse, Hollowell, J., Meier, C. R., and Haefeli, W. E., Drug interactions and risk of acute bleeding leading to hospitalisation or death in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation treated with warfarin, Thromb Haemost, vol. 94, pp. 537-43, 2005.
C. Garriga, Pazianas, M., Hawley, S., Delmestri, A., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Cooper, C., and Judge, A., Oral bisphosphonate use and age-related macular degeneration: retrospective cohort and nested case-control study, Ann N Y Acad Sci, vol. 1415, pp. 34-46, 2018.
L. A. Garcia-Rodriguez and Huerta-Alvarez, C., Reduced risk of colorectal cancer among long-term users of aspirin and nonaspirin nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, Epidemiology, vol. 12, pp. 88-93, 2001.
L. A. Garcia-Rodriguez, Masso-Gonzalez, E. L., Wallander, M. A., and Johansson, S., The safety of rosuvastatin in comparison with other statins in over 100,000 statin users in UK primary care, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 17, pp. 943-52, 2008.
W. Gao, Gulliford, M., Morgan, M., and Higginson, I. J., Primary care service use by end-of-life cancer patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom, BMC Fam Pract, vol. 21, p. 76, 2020.
W. Gao, Gulliford, M., Bennett, M. I., Murtagh, F. E., and Higginson, I. J., Managing cancer pain at the end of life with multiple strong opioids: a population-based retrospective cohort study in primary care, PLoS One, vol. 9, p. e79266, 2014.
W. Gao, Gulliford, M., and Higginson, I. J., Prescription patterns of analgesics in the last 3 months of life: a retrospective analysis of 10202 lung cancer patients, Br J Cancer, vol. 104, pp. 1704-10, 2011.
J. M. Gamble, Chibrikov, E., Midodzi, W. K., Twells, L. K., and Majumdar, S. R., Examining the risk of depression or self-harm associated with incretin-based therapies used to manage hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cohort study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e023830, 2018.
J. M. Gamble, Donnan, J. R., Chibrikov, E., Twells, L. K., Midodzi, W. K., and Majumdar, S. R., Comparative Safety of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors Versus Sulfonylureas and Other Glucose-lowering Therapies for Three Acute Outcomes, Sci Rep, vol. 8, p. 15142, 2018.
J. M. Gamble, Thomas, J. M., Twells, L. K., Midodzi, W. K., and Majumdar, S. R., Comparative effectiveness of incretin-based therapies and the risk of death and cardiovascular events in 38,233 metformin monotherapy users, Medicine (Baltimore), vol. 95, p. e3995, 2016.
J. M. Gamble, Chibrikov, E., Twells, L. K., Midodzi, W. K., Young, S. W., MacDonald, D., and Majumdar, S. R., Association of insulin dosage with mortality or major adverse cardiovascular events: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 5, pp. 43-52, 2017.
J. M. Gamble, Donnan, J. R., Chibrikov, E., Twells, L. K., Midodzi, W. K., and Majumdar, S. R., The risk of fragility fractures in new users of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors compared to sulfonylureas and other anti-diabetic drugs: A cohort study, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 136, pp. 159-167, 2018.
T. Galvain, Chitnis, A., Paparouni, K., Tong, C., Holy, C. E., and Giannoudis, P. V., The economic burden of infections following intramedullary nailing for a tibial shaft fracture in England, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e035404, 2020.
A. M. Gallagher, Thomas, J. M., Hamilton, W. T., and White, P. D., Incidence of fatigue symptoms and diagnoses presenting in UK primary care from 1990 to 2001, J R Soc Med, vol. 97, pp. 571-5, 2004.
A. M. Gallagher, Rietbrock, S., Olson, M., and van Staa, T. P., Fracture outcomes related to persistence and compliance with oral bisphosphonates, J Bone Miner Res, vol. 23, pp. 1569-75, 2008.
A. M. Gallagher, Rietbrock, S., Plumb, J., and van Staa, T. P., Initiation and persistence of warfarin or aspirin in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation in general practice: do the appropriate patients receive stroke prophylaxis?, J Thromb Haemost, vol. 6, pp. 1500-6, 2008.
A. M. Gallagher, Leighton-Scott, J., and van Staa, T. P., Utilization characteristics and treatment persistence in patients prescribed low-dose buprenorphine patches in primary care in the United Kingdom: a retrospective cohort study, Clin Ther, vol. 31, pp. 1707-15, 2009.
A. M. Gallagher, Setakis, E., Plumb, J. M., Clemens, A., and van Staa, T. P., Risks of stroke and mortality associated with suboptimal anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation patients, Thromb Haemost, vol. 106, pp. 968-77, 2011.
A. M. Gallagher, Smeeth, L., Seabroke, S., Leufkens, H. G., and van Staa, T. P., Risk of death and cardiovascular outcomes with thiazolidinediones: a study with the general practice research database and secondary care data, PLoS One, vol. 6, p. e28157, 2011.
A. M. Gallagher, van Staa, T. P., Murray-Thomas, T., Schoof, N., Clemens, A., Ackermann, D., and Bartels, D. B., Population-based cohort study of warfarin-treated patients with atrial fibrillation: incidence of cardiovascular and bleeding outcomes, BMJ Open, vol. 4, p. e003839, 2014.
A. M. Gallagher, Dedman, D., Padmanabhan, S., Leufkens, H. G. M., and de Vries, F., The accuracy of date of death recording in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD database in England compared with the Office for National Statistics death registrations, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019.
A. M. Gallagher, de Vries, F., Plumb, J. M., Hass, B., Clemens, A., and van Staa, T. P., Quality of INR control and outcomes following venous thromboembolism, Clin Appl Thromb Hemost, vol. 18, pp. 370-8, 2012.
A. M. Gallagher, Williams, T., Leufkens, H. G., and de Vries, F., The Impact of the Choice of Data Source in Record Linkage Studies Estimating Mortality in Venous Thromboembolism, PLoS One, vol. 11, p. e0148349, 2016.
N. Gallagher, Cardwell, C., Hughes, C., and O'Reilly, D., Increase in the pharmacological management of Type 2 diabetes with pay-for-performance in primary care in the UK, Diabet Med, vol. 32, pp. 62-8, 2015.
C. R. Gale, Edington, J., Coles, S. J., and Martyn, C. N., Patterns of prescribing of nutritional supplements in the United Kingdom, Clin Nutr, vol. 20, pp. 333-7, 2001.
S. Gale, Wilson, J. C., Chia, J., Trinh, H., Tuckwell, K., Collinson, N., Dimonaco, S., Jick, S., Meier, C., Mohan, S. V., and Sarsour, K., Risk Associated with Cumulative Oral Glucocorticoid Use in Patients with Giant Cell Arteritis in Real-World Databases from the USA and UK, Rheumatol Ther, 2018.
A. Gaitatzis, Purcell, B., Carroll, K., Sander, J. W., and Majeed, A., Differences in the use of health services among people with and without epilepsy in the United Kingdom: socio-economic and disease-specific determinants, Epilepsy Res, vol. 50, pp. 233-41, 2002.
A. Gaitatzis, Carroll, K., Majeed, A., and W. J, S., The epidemiology of the comorbidity of epilepsy in the general population, Epilepsia, vol. 45, pp. 1613-22, 2004.
D. Gaist, Rodriguez, L. A., Huerta, C., Hallas, J., and Sindrup, S. H., Lipid-lowering drugs and risk of myopathy: a population-based follow-up study, Epidemiology, vol. 12, pp. 565-9, 2001.
R. Gafoor, Booth, H. P., and Gulliford, M. C., Antidepressant utilisation and incidence of weight gain during 10 years' follow-up: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 361, p. k1951, 2018.
R. Gafoor, Charlton, J., Ravindrarajah, R., and Gulliford, M. C., Importance of Frailty for Association of Antipsychotic Drug Use with Risk of Fracture: Cohort Study Using Electronic Health Records, J Am Med Dir Assoc, 2019.
A. Gadoud, Kane, E., Macleod, U., Ansell, P., Oliver, S., and Johnson, M., Palliative care among heart failure patients in primary care: a comparison to cancer patients using English family practice data, PLoS One, vol. 9, p. e113188, 2014.
A. Gadoud, Kane, E., Oliver, S. E., Johnson, M. J., Macleod, U., and Allgar, V., Palliative care for non-cancer conditions in primary care: a time trend analysis in the UK (2009-2014), BMJ Support Palliat Care, 2020.
[Page last reviewed 5 July 2021]