Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 April 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 226 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



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Author Title [ Type(Desc)] Year
Filters: Author is Butler, C. C.  [Clear All Filters]
Journal Article
H. Ahmed, Farewell, D., Jones, H. M., Francis, N. A., Paranjothy, S., and Butler, C. C., Antibiotic prophylaxis and clinical outcomes among older adults with recurrent urinary tract infection: cohort study, Age Ageing, vol. 48, pp. 228-234, 2019.
C. J. Currie, Berni, E., Jenkins-Jones, S., Poole, C. D., Ouwens, M., Driessen, S., de Voogd, H., Butler, C. C., and Morgan, C. L., Antibiotic treatment failure in four common infections in UK primary care 1991-2012: longitudinal analysis, Bmj, vol. 349, p. g5493, 2014.
E. Berni, Butler, C. C., Jenkins-Jones, S., de Voogd, H., Ouwens, M., Morgan, C. L., and Currie, C. J., Comparative estimated effectiveness of antibiotic classes as initial and secondary treatments of respiratory tract infections: longitudinal analysis of routine data from UK primary care 1991-2012, Curr Med Res Opin, vol. 32, pp. 1023-32, 2016.
N. A. Francis, Entwistle, K., Santer, M., Layton, A. M., Eady, E. A., and Butler, C. C., The management of acne vulgaris in primary care: a cohort study of consulting and prescribing patterns using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Dermatol, vol. 176, pp. 107-115, 2017.
E. Berni, Scott, L. A., Jenkins-Jones, S., de Voogd, H., Rocha, M. S., Butler, C. C., Morgan, C. L., and Currie, C. J., Non-Response to Antibiotic Treatment in Adolescents for Four Common Infections in UK Primary Care 1991-2012: A Retrospective, Longitudinal Study, Antibiotics (Basel), vol. 5, 2016.
J. J. Lee, Smith, M., Bankhead, C., R. Salazar, P., Kousoulis, A. A., Butler, C. C., and Wang, K., Oseltamivir and influenza-related complications in children: a retrospective cohort in primary care, Eur Respir J, 2020.
J. J. Lee, Bankhead, C., Smith, M., Kousoulis, A. A., Butler, C. C., and Wang, K., Risk factors for influenza-related complications in children during the 2009/10 pandemic: a UK primary care cohort study using linked routinely collected data, Epidemiol Infect, vol. 146, pp. 817-823, 2018.
H. Ahmed, Farewell, D., Francis, N. A., Paranjothy, S., and Butler, C. C., Risk of adverse outcomes following urinary tract infection in older people with renal impairment: Retrospective cohort study using linked health record data, PLoS Med, vol. 15, p. e1002652, 2018.
E. Berni, de Voogd, H., Halcox, J. P., Butler, C. C., Bannister, C. A., Jenkins-Jones, S., Jones, B., Ouwens, M., and Currie, C. J., Risk of cardiovascular events, arrhythmia and all-cause mortality associated with clarithromycin versus alternative antibiotics prescribed for respiratory tract infections: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e013398, 2017.
N. A. Francis, Hood, K., Lyons, R., and Butler, C. C., Understanding flucloxacillin prescribing trends and treatment non-response in UK primary care: a Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) study, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol. 71, pp. 2037-46, 2016.
[Page last reviewed 6 April 2021]