Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 July 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 206 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2551 results:
Author [ Title(Desc)] Type Year
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C. Schneider, Adamcova, M., Jick, S. S., Schlagenhauf, P., Miller, M. K., Rhein, H. G., and Meier, C. R., Antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders, Travel Med Infect Dis, vol. 11, pp. 71-80, 2013.
C. Klop, Gibson-Smith, D., Elders, P. J., Welsing, P. M., Leufkens, H. G., Harvey, N. C., Bijlsma, J. W., van Staa, T. P., and de Vries, F., Anti-osteoporosis drug prescribing after hip fracture in the UK: 2000-2010, Osteoporos Int, vol. 26, pp. 1919-28, 2015.
S. Hawley, Leal, J., Delmestri, A., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Arden, N. K., Cooper, C., Javaid, M. K., and Judge, A., Anti-Osteoporosis Medication Prescriptions and Incidence of Subsequent Fracture Among Primary Hip Fracture Patients in England and Wales: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis, J Bone Miner Res, vol. 31, pp. 2008-2015, 2016.
G. L. Zornberg and Jick, H., Antipsychotic drug use and risk of first-time idiopathic venous thromboembolism: a case-control study, Lancet, vol. 356, pp. 1219-23, 2000.
M. Bloechliger, Ruegg, S., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Bodmer, M., Antipsychotic drug use and the risk of seizures: follow-up study with a nested case-control analysis, CNS Drugs, vol. 29, pp. 591-603, 2015.
C. Ishiguro, Wang, X., Li, L., and Jick, S., Antipsychotic drugs and risk of idiopathic venous thromboembolism: a nested case-control study using the CPRD, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 23, pp. 1168-75, 2014.
R. Brauer, Smeeth, L., Anaya-Izquierdo, K., Timmis, A., Denaxas, S. C., Farrington, C. P., Whitaker, H., Hemingway, H., and Douglas, I., Antipsychotic drugs and risks of myocardial infarction: a self-controlled case series study, Eur Heart J, vol. 36, pp. 984-92, 2015.
S. J. Stocks, Kontopantelis, E., Webb, R. T., Avery, A. J., Burns, A., and Ashcroft, D. M., Antipsychotic Prescribing to Patients Diagnosed with Dementia Without a Diagnosis of Psychosis in the Context of National Guidance and Drug Safety Warnings: Longitudinal Study in UK General Practice, Drug Saf, vol. 40, pp. 679-692, 2017.
A. Ble, Masoli, J. A., Barry, H. E., Winder, R. E., Tavakoly, B., Henley, W. E., Kuchel, G. A., Valderas, J. M., Melzer, D., and Richards, S. H., Any versus long-term prescribing of high risk medications in older people using 2012 Beers Criteria: results from three cross-sectional samples of primary care records for 2003/4, 2007/8 and 2011/12, BMC Geriatr, vol. 15, p. 146, 2015.
L. E. Derby and Jick, H., Appendectomy protects against ulcerative colitis, Epidemiology, vol. 9, pp. 205-7, 1998.
S. V. Morant, Pettitt, D., MacDonald, T. M., Burke, T. A., and Goldstein, J. L., Application of a propensity score to adjust for channelling bias with NSAIDs, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 13, pp. 345-53, 2004.
A. K. Ali, Hartzema, A. G., Winterstein, A. G., Segal, R., Lu, X., and Hendeles, L., Application of multicategory exposure marginal structural models to investigate the association between long-acting beta-agonists and prescribing of oral corticosteroids for asthma exacerbations in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Value Health, vol. 18, pp. 260-70, 2015.
S. W. Turner, Murray, C., Thomas, M., Burden, A., and Price, D. B., Applying UK real-world primary care data to predict asthma attacks in 3776 well-characterised children: a retrospective cohort study, NPJ Prim Care Respir Med, vol. 28, p. 28, 2018.
S. Padmanabhan, Carty, L., Cameron, E., Ghosh, R. E., Williams, R., and Strongman, H., Approach to record linkage of primary care data from Clinical Practice Research Datalink to other health-related patient data: overview and implications, Eur J Epidemiol, 2018.
S. Ramagopalan, Leahy, T. P., Stamp, E., and Sammon, C., Approaches for the identification of chronic kidney disease in CPRD-HES-linked studies, J Comp Eff Res, 2020.
L. A. Garcia Rodriguez, Martin-Perez, M., Vora, P., Roberts, L., Balabanova, Y., Brobert, G., Fatoba, S., Suzart-Woischnik, K., Schaefer, B., and Ruigomez, A., Appropriateness of initial dose of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in the UK, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e031341, 2019.
M. J. Warnier, Rutten, F. H., Souverein, P. C., de Boer, A., Hoes, A. W., and De Bruin, M. L., Are ECG monitoring recommendations before prescription of QT-prolonging drugs applied in daily practice? The example of haloperidol, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 24, pp. 701-8, 2015.
A. R. Tate, Nicholson, A., and Cassell, J. A., Are GPs under-investigating older patients presenting with symptoms of ovarian cancer? Observational study using General Practice Research Database, Br J Cancer, vol. 102, pp. 947-51, 2010.
C. Rudisill, Charlton, J., Booth, H. P., and Gulliford, M. C., Are healthcare costs from obesity associated with body mass index, comorbidity or depression? Cohort study using electronic health records, Clin Obes, vol. 6, pp. 225-31, 2016.
T. R. Card, Siffledeen, J., and Fleming, K. M., Are IBD patients more likely to have a prior diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome? Report of a case-control study in the General Practice Research Database, United European Gastroenterol J, vol. 2, pp. 505-12, 2014.
E. C. Somers, Thomas, S. L., Smeeth, L., and Hall, A. J., Are individuals with an autoimmune disease at higher risk of a second autoimmune disorder?, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 169, pp. 749-55, 2009.
T. P. van Staa, Bishop, N., Leufkens, H. G., and Cooper, C., Are inhaled corticosteroids associated with an increased risk of fracture in children?, Osteoporos Int, vol. 15, pp. 785-91, 2004.
I. M. Carey, Anderson, H. R., Atkinson, R. W., Beevers, S. D., Cook, D. G., Strachan, D. P., Dajnak, D., Gulliver, J., and Kelly, F. J., Are noise and air pollution related to the incidence of dementia? A cohort study in London, England, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e022404, 2018.
A. Ruigomez, Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Dev, V. J., Arellano, F., and Raniwala, J., Are schizophrenia or antipsychotic drugs a risk factor for cataracts?, Epidemiology, vol. 11, pp. 620-3, 2000.
R. Hoile, Tabet, N., Smith, H., Bremner, S., Cassell, J., and Ford, E., Are symptoms of insomnia in primary care associated with subsequent onset of dementia? A matched retrospective case-control study, Aging Ment Health, pp. 1-6, 2019.
D. Millson, Frischer, M., Croft, P., and Goadsby, P. J., Are triptans with enhanced lipophilicity used for the acute treatment of migraine associated with an increased consulting rate for depressive illness?, Cephalalgia, vol. 20, pp. 732-7, 2000.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Filion, K. B., Bouganim, N., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Aromatase Inhibitors and the Risk of Cardiovascular Outcomes in Women With Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Circulation, vol. 141, pp. 549-559, 2020.
F. Khosrow-Khavar, Yin, H., Barkun, A., Bouganim, N., and Azoulay, L., Aromatase inhibitors and the risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women with breast cancer, Ann Oncol, vol. 29, pp. 744-748, 2018.
A. Ruigomez, Brauer, R., Rodriguez, L. A., Huerta, C., Requena, G., Gil, M., de Abajo, F., Downey, G., Bate, A., Tepie, M. F., de Groot, M., Schlienger, R., Reynolds, R., and Klungel, O., Ascertainment of acute liver injury in two European primary care databases, Eur J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 70, pp. 1227-35, 2014.
A. J. Walker, Grainge, M. J., and Card, T. R., Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and colorectal cancer survival: a cohort study, Br J Cancer, vol. 107, pp. 1602-7, 2012.
A. Leite, Andrews, N. J., and Thomas, S. L., Assessing recording delays in general practice records to inform near real-time vaccine safety surveillance using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 26, pp. 437-445, 2017.
R. J. Pitman, Melegaro, A., Gelb, D., Siddiqui, M. R., Gay, N. J., and Edmunds, W. J., Assessing the burden of influenza and other respiratory infections in England and Wales, J Infect, vol. 54, pp. 530-8, 2007.
R. R. Camejo, McGrath, C., Herings, R., Starkie, H., and Rutten, F., Assessing the determinants of the potential for cost-effectiveness over time: the empirical case of COPD, Value Health, vol. 16, pp. 426-33, 2013.
J. D. Chalmers, Poole, C., Webster, S., Tebboth, A., Dickinson, S., and Gayle, A., Assessing the healthcare resource use associated with inappropriate prescribing of inhaled corticosteroids for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in GOLD groups A or B: an observational study using the Clinical Practice Research Data, Respir Res, vol. 19, p. 63, 2018.
M. Frisher, Crome, I., Martino, O., and Croft, P., Assessing the impact of cannabis use on trends in diagnosed schizophrenia in the United Kingdom from 1996 to 2005, Schizophr Res, vol. 113, pp. 123-8, 2009.
M. Z. Ankarfeldt, Thorsted, B. L., Groenwold, R. H., Adalsteinsson, E., Ali, M. S., and Klungel, O. H., Assessment of channeling bias among initiators of glucose-lowering drugs: A UK cohort study, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 9, pp. 19-30, 2017.
J. L. Walker, Zhao, H., Dabrera, G., Andrews, N., Thomas, S. L., Tsang, C., Ellis, J., Donati, M., and Pebody, R. G., Assessment of Effectiveness of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy in Preventing Influenza Infection in Infants in England, 2013-2014 and 2014-2015, J Infect Dis, 2019.
C. E. Koro, Fedder, D. O., L'Italien, G. J., Weiss, S. S., Magder, L. S., Kreyenbuhl, J., Revicki, D. A., and Buchanan, R. W., Assessment of independent effect of olanzapine and risperidone on risk of diabetes among patients with schizophrenia: population based nested case-control study, Bmj, vol. 325, p. 243, 2002.
V. Balinskaite, Bou-Antoun, S., Johnson, A. P., Holmes, A., and Aylin, P., An assessment of potential unintended consequences following a national antimicrobial stewardship programme in England: an interrupted time series analysis, Clin Infect Dis, 2018.
C. E. Koro, Fedder, D. O., L'Italien, G. J., Weiss, S., Magder, L. S., Kreyenbuhl, J., Revicki, D., and Buchanan, R. W., An assessment of the independent effects of olanzapine and risperidone exposure on the risk of hyperlipidemia in schizophrenic patients, Arch Gen Psychiatry, vol. 59, pp. 1021-6, 2002.
C. R. Meier, Schmitz, S., and Jick, H., Association between acetaminophen or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and risk of developing ovarian, breast, or colon cancer, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 22, pp. 303-9, 2002.
S. Hajat, Haines, A., Atkinson, R. W., Bremner, S. A., Anderson, H. R., and Emberlin, J., Association between air pollution and daily consultations with general practitioners for allergic rhinitis in London, United Kingdom, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 153, pp. 704-14, 2001.
G. Requena, Ma, L., Sturmer, T., Layton, J. B., and DiBello, J., Association Between an Acute, Drug-Induced Decrease in High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels and Risk of Cardiovascular Events, Clin Drug Investig, 2020.
P. Kasteridis, Ride, J., Gutacker, N., Aylott, L., Dare, C., Doran, T., Gilbody, S., Goddard, M., Gravelle, H., Kendrick, T., Mason, A., Rice, N., Siddiqi, N., Williams, R., and Jacobs, R., Association Between Antipsychotic Polypharmacy and Outcomes for People With Serious Mental Illness in England, Psychiatr Serv, p. appips201800504, 2019.
G. Nakafero, Sanders, R. D., Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S., and Myles, P. R., Association between benzodiazepine use and exacerbations and mortality in patients with asthma: a matched case-control and survival analysis using the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 24, pp. 793-802, 2015.
G. Nakafero, Sanders, R. D., Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S., and Myles, P. R., The association between benzodiazepines and influenza-like illness-related pneumonia and mortality: a survival analysis using UK Primary Care data, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 25, pp. 1263-1273, 2016.
Y. B. Brauchli, Jick, S. S., Curtin, F., and Meier, C. R., Association between beta-blockers, other antihypertensive drugs and psoriasis: population-based case-control study, Br J Dermatol, vol. 158, pp. 1299-307, 2008.
D. Prieto-Alhambra, Javaid, M. K., Judge, A., Murray, D., Carr, A., Cooper, C., and Arden, N. K., Association between bisphosphonate use and implant survival after primary total arthroplasty of the knee or hip: population based retrospective cohort study, Bmj, vol. 343, p. d7222, 2011.
M. Kerkhof, Tran, T. N., van den Berge, M., Brusselle, G. G., Gopalan, G., Jones, R. C. M., Kocks, J. W. H., Menzies-Gow, A., Nuevo, J., Pavord, I. D., Rastogi, S., and Price, D. B., Association between blood eosinophil count and risk of readmission for patients with asthma: Historical cohort study, PLoS One, vol. 13, p. e0201143, 2018.
S. H. Landis, Pimenta, J. M., Yang, S., Compton, C., Barnes, N., and Brusselle, G., Association between blood eosinophils and acute exacerbation of COPD risk in patients with COPD in primary care, Respiratory Medicine, vol. 1, 2019.
[Page last reviewed 6 July 2020]