Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,600 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 6 November 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 216 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2635 results:
[ Author(Desc)] Title Type Year
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 
G. J. Young, Harrison, S., Turner, E. L., Walsh, E. I., Oliver, S. E., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Evans, S., Lane, J. A., Neal, D. E., Hamdy, F. C., Donovan, J. L., Martin, R. M., and Metcalfe, C., Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing of men in UK general practice: a 10-year longitudinal cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 7, p. e017729, 2017.
J. P. Yska, van Roon, E. N., de Boer, A., Leufkens, H. G., Wilffert, B., de Heide, L. J., de Vries, F., and Lalmohamed, A., Remission of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Patients After Different Types of Bariatric Surgery: A Population-Based Cohort Study in the United Kingdom, JAMA Surg, vol. 150, pp. 1126-33, 2015.
J. Yu, Tang, J., Li, Z., Sajjan, S., O'Regan, C., Modi, A., and Sazonov, V., History of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular risk factors among patients initiating strontium ranelate for treatment of osteoporosis, Int J Womens Health, vol. 7, pp. 913-8, 2015.
O. H. Yu, Filion, K. B., Azoulay, L., Patenaude, V., Majdan, A., and Suissa, S., Incretin-based drugs and the risk of congestive heart failure, Diabetes Care, vol. 38, pp. 277-84, 2015.
O. H. Yu, Yin, H., and Azoulay, L., The combination of DPP-4 inhibitors versus sulfonylureas with metformin after failure of first-line treatment in the risk for major cardiovascular events and death, Can J Diabetes, vol. 39, pp. 383-9, 2015.
O. Yu, Azoulay, L., Yin, H., Filion, K. B., and Suissa, S., Sulfonylureas as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes and the Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia, Am J Med, vol. 131, pp. 317.e11-317.e22, 2018.
D. Yu, Jordan, K. P., Bedson, J., Englund, M., Blyth, F., Turkiewicz, A., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Peat, G., Population trends in the incidence and initial management of osteoarthritis: age-period-cohort analysis of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, 1992-2013, Rheumatology (Oxford), vol. 56, pp. 1902-1917, 2017.
D. Yu, Jordan, K. P., Snell, K. I. E., Riley, R. D., Bedson, J., Edwards, J. J., Mallen, C. D., Tan, V., Ukachukwu, V., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Walker, C., and Peat, G., Development and validation of prediction models to estimate risk of primary total hip and knee replacements using data from the UK: two prospective open cohorts using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Ann Rheum Dis, 2018.
D. Yu, Jordan, K. P., and Peat, G., Underrecording of osteoarthritis in United Kingdom primary care electronic health record data, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 10, pp. 1195-1201, 2018.
N. Yurgin, Secnik, K., and Lage, M. J., Obesity and the use of insulin: a study of patients with type 2 diabetes in the UK, J Diabetes Complications, vol. 22, pp. 235-40, 2008.
F. Zaccardi, Ling, S., Lawson, C., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Severe hypoglycaemia and absolute risk of cause-specific mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a UK primary care observational study, Diabetologia, 2020.
F. Zaccardi, Jacquot, E., Cortese, V., Tyrer, F., Seidu, S., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Comparative effectiveness of gliclazide modified release vs sitagliptin as second-line treatment after metformin monotherapy in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2020.
F. Zaccardi, Husemoen, L. L. Nystrup, Thorsted, B. L., Webb, D. R., Paul, S. K., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Selectivity of beta-blockers, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in people with hypoglycaemia: An observational study, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, vol. 29, pp. 481-488, 2019.
C. Zecca, Disanto, G., Sacco, R., MacLachlan, S., Kuhle, J., Ramagopalan, S. V., and Gobbi, C., Increasing cancer risk over calendar year in people with multiple sclerosis: a case-control study, J Neurol, 2020.
D. Zenner, Kruijshaar, M. E., Andrews, N., and Abubakar, I., Risk of tuberculosis in pregnancy: a national, primary care-based cohort and self-controlled case series study, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol. 185, pp. 779-84, 2012.
S. S. Zghebi, Steinke, D. T., Carr, M. J., Rutter, M. K., Emsley, R. A., and Ashcroft, D. M., Examining trends in type 2 diabetes incidence, prevalence and mortality in the UK between 2004 and 2014, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 19, pp. 1537-1545, 2017.
S. S. Zghebi, Steinke, D. T., Rutter, M. K., Emsley, R. A., and Ashcroft, D. M., Comparative risk of major cardiovascular events associated with second-line antidiabetic treatments: a retrospective cohort study using UK primary care data linked to hospitalization and mortality records, Diabetes Obes Metab, vol. 18, pp. 916-24, 2016.
S. S. Zghebi, Steinke, D. T., Rutter, M. K., and Ashcroft, D. M., Eleven-year multimorbidity burden among 637 255 people with and without type 2 diabetes: a population-based study using primary care and linked hospitalisation data, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e033866, 2020.
S. S. Zghebi, Mamas, M. A., Ashcroft, D. M., Salisbury, C., Mallen, C. D., Chew-Graham, C. A., Reeves, D., van Marwijk, H., Qureshi, N., Weng, S., Holt, T., Buchan, I., Peek, N., Giles, S., Rutter, M. K., and Kontopantelis, E., Development and validation of the DIabetes Severity SCOre (DISSCO) in 139 626 individuals with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 8, 2020.
S. S. Zghebi, Rutter, M. K., Ashcroft, D. M., Salisbury, C., Mallen, C., Chew-Graham, C. A., Reeves, D., van Marwijk, H., Qureshi, N., Weng, S., Peek, N., Planner, C., Nowakowska, M., Mamas, M., and Kontopantelis, E., Using electronic health records to quantify and stratify the severity of type 2 diabetes in primary care in England: rationale and cohort study design, BMJ Open, vol. 8, p. e020926, 2018.
B. Zhang, de Vries, F., Setakis, E., and van Staa, T. P., The pattern of risk of myocardial infarction in patients taking asthma medication: a study with the General Practice Research Database, J Hypertens, vol. 27, pp. 1485-92, 2009.
Y. Zhang, Souverein, P. C., Gardarsdottir, H., van den Ham, H. A., van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, and de Boer, A., Risk of major bleeding among users of direct oral anticoagulants combined with interacting drugs: A population-based nested case-control study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
J. Zhang, Haines, C., Watson, A. J. M., Hart, A. R., Platt, M. J., Pardoll, D. M., Cosgrove, S. E., Gebo, K. A., and Sears, C. L., Oral antibiotic use and risk of colorectal cancer in the United Kingdom, 1989-2012: a matched case-control study, Gut, 2019.
V. W. Zhong, Juhaeri, J., Cole, S. R., Shay, C. M., Gordon-Larsen, P., Kontopantelis, E., and Mayer-Davis, E. J., HbA1C variability and hypoglycemia hospitalization in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: A nested case-control study, J Diabetes Complications, vol. 32, pp. 203-209, 2018.
V. W. Zhong, Juhaeri, J., Cole, S. R., Shay, C. M., Gordon-Larsen, P., Kontopantelis, E., and Mayer-Davis, E. J., Proximal HbA1C Level and First Hypoglycemia Hospitalization in Adults with Incident Type 2 Diabetes, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2019.
V. W. Zhong, Juhaeri, J., Cole, S. R., Kontopantelis, E., Shay, C. M., Gordon-Larsen, P., and Mayer-Davis, E. J., Incidence and Trends in Hypoglycemia Hospitalization in Adults With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in England, 1998-2013: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, vol. 40, pp. 1651-1660, 2017.
V. W. Zhong, Juhaeri, J., and Mayer-Davis, E. J., Trends in Hospital Admission for Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Adults With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in England, 1998-2013: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, vol. 41, pp. 1870-1877, 2018.
E. H. Zhou, Gelperin, K., Levenson, M. S., Rose, M., Hsueh, Y. H., and Graham, D. J., Risk of acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or death in patients initiating olmesartan or other angiotensin receptor blockers - a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 23, pp. 340-7, 2014.
Z. Zhou, Althin, R., Sforzolini, B. S., and Dhawan, R., Persistency and treatment failure in newly diagnosed open angle glaucoma patients in the United Kingdom, Br J Ophthalmol, vol. 88, pp. 1391-4, 2004.
Y. Zhu, Edwards, D., Mant, J., Payne, R. A., and Kiddle, S., Characteristics, service use and mortality of clusters of multimorbid patients in England: a population-based study, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 78, 2020.
J. Zhu and Gallego, B., Targeted estimation of heterogeneous treatment effect in observational survival analysis, J Biomed Inform, vol. 107, p. 103474, 2020.
C. S. Zin, Chen, L. C., and Knaggs, R. D., Changes in trends and pattern of strong opioid prescribing in primary care, Eur J Pain, vol. 18, pp. 1343-51, 2014.
F. Zingone, Sultan, A. A., Humes, D. J., and West, J., Risk of acute appendicitis in and around pregnancy: a population-based cohort study from England, Ann Surg, vol. 261, pp. 332-7, 2015.
F. Zingone, A. Sultan, A., Crooks, C. J., Tata, L. J., Ciacci, C., and West, J., The risk of community-acquired pneumonia among 9803 patients with coeliac disease compared to the general population: a cohort study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol. 44, pp. 57-67, 2016.
G. L. Zornberg and Jick, H., Antipsychotic drug use and risk of first-time idiopathic venous thromboembolism: a case-control study, Lancet, vol. 356, pp. 1219-23, 2000.
[Page last reviewed 6 November 2020]