Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,800 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 July 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 4MB, 236 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2833 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
B. D. Bradbury, Lash, T. L., Kaye, J. A., and Jick, S. S., Tamoxifen and cataracts: a null association, Breast Cancer Res Treat, vol. 87, pp. 189-96, 2004.
N. Andrews, Miller, E., Grant, A., Stowe, J., Osborne, V., and Taylor, B., Thimerosal exposure in infants and developmental disorders: a retrospective cohort study in the United kingdom does not support a causal association, Pediatrics, vol. 114, pp. 584-91, 2004.
G. C. Hall, Brown, M. M., Mo, J., and MacRae, K. D., Triptans in migraine: the risks of stroke, cardiovascular disease, and death in practice, Neurology, vol. 62, pp. 563-8, 2004.
R. G. Schlienger, Kraenzlin, M. E., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Use of beta-blockers and risk of fractures, Jama, vol. 292, pp. 1326-32, 2004.
P. C. Souverein, Berard, A., van Staa, T. P., Cooper, C., Egberts, A. C., Leufkens, H. G., and Walker, B. R., Use of oral glucocorticoids and risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in a population based case-control study, Heart, vol. 90, pp. 859-65, 2004.
S. E. Bromley, de Vries, C. S., and Farmer, R. D., Utilisation of hormone replacement therapy in the United Kingdom. A descriptive study using the general practice research database, Bjog, vol. 111, pp. 369-76, 2004.
T. M. McKeever, Lewis, S. A., Smith, C., and Hubbard, R., Vaccination and allergic disease: a birth cohort study, Am J Public Health, vol. 94, pp. 985-9, 2004.
E. Fombonne, Heavey, L., Smeeth, L., Rodrigues, L. C., Cook, C., Smith, P. G., Meng, L., and Hall, A. J., Validation of the diagnosis of autism in general practitioner records, BMC Public Health, vol. 4, p. 5, 2004.
H. E. Seaman, de Vries, C. S., and Farmer, R. D., Venous thromboembolism associated with cyproterone acetate in combination with ethinyloestradiol (Dianette): observational studies using the UK General Practice Research Database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 13, pp. 427-36, 2004.
G. E. Smith, Smith, S., Heatlie, H., Bashford, J. N., Hawker, J., Ashcroft, D., Millson, D., Verlander, N. Q., and Warren, R., What has happened to antimicrobial usage in primary care in the United Kingdom since the SMAC report? - description of trends in antimicrobial usage using the General Practice Research Database, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 26, pp. 359-64, 2004.
M. Ashworth, Latinovic, R., Charlton, J., Cox, K., Rowlands, G., and Gulliford, M., Why has antibiotic prescribing for respiratory illness declined in primary care? A longitudinal study using the General Practice Research Database, J Public Health (Oxf), vol. 26, pp. 268-74, 2004.
B. L. Strom, Schinnar, R., Apter, A. J., Margolis, D. J., Lautenbach, E., Hennessy, S., Bilker, W. B., and Pettitt, D., Absence of cross-reactivity between sulfonamide antibiotics and sulfonamide nonantibiotics, N Engl J Med, vol. 349, pp. 1628-35, 2003.
D. J. Watson, Rhodes, T., and Guess, H. A., All-cause mortality and vascular events among patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, or no arthritis in the UK General Practice Research Database, J Rheumatol, vol. 30, pp. 1196-202, 2003.
W. A. Blumentals, Brown, R. R., and Gomez-Caminero, A., Antihypertensive treatment and erectile dysfunction in a cohort of type II diabetes patients, Int J Impot Res, vol. 15, pp. 314-7, 2003.
L. Smeeth, Hubbard, R., and Fletcher, A. E., Cataract and the use of statins: a case-control study, Qjm, vol. 96, pp. 337-43, 2003.
J. A. Kaye, Bradbury, B. D., and Jick, H., Changes in antipsychotic drug prescribing by general practitioners in the United Kingdom from 1991 to 2000: a population-based observational study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 56, pp. 569-75, 2003.
T. M. MacDonald, Morant, S. V., Goldstein, J. L., Burke, T. A., and Pettitt, D., Channelling bias and the incidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage in users of meloxicam, coxibs, and older, non-specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Gut, vol. 52, pp. 1265-70, 2003.
T. P. van Staa, Cooper, C., Leufkens, H. G., and Bishop, N., Children and the risk of fractures caused by oral corticosteroids, J Bone Miner Res, vol. 18, pp. 913-8, 2003.
J. Hoare, Comparison of area-based inequality measures and disease morbidity in England, 1994–1998., Health Stat Q, vol. 18, pp. 18-24, 2003.
C. Deschaseaux-Voinet, Lafuma, A., and Berdeaux, G., Cost and effectiveness of brinzolamide versus dorzolamide in current practice: an analysis based on the UK-GPRD database, J Med Econ, vol. 6, pp. 69-78, 2003.
G. T. McInnes, The differences between ACE inhibitor-treated and calcium channel blocker-treated hypertensive patients, J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich), vol. 5, pp. 337-44, 2003.
H. E. Seaman, de Vries, C. S., and Farmer, R. D., Differences in the use of combined oral contraceptives amongst women with and without acne, Hum Reprod, vol. 18, pp. 515-21, 2003.
C. C. Yang, Jick, S. S., and Testa, M. A., Discontinuation and switching of therapy after initiation of lipid-lowering drugs: the effects of comorbidities and patient characteristics, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 56, pp. 84-91, 2003.
L. J. Tata, West, J., Harrison, T., Farrington, P., Smith, C., and Hubbard, R., Does influenza vaccination increase consultations, corticosteroid prescriptions, or exacerbations in subjects with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?, Thorax, vol. 58, pp. 835-9, 2003.
S. A. Bremner, Carey, I. M., DeWilde, S., Richards, N., Maier, W. C., Hilton, S. R., Strachan, D. P., and Cook, D. G., Early-life exposure to antibacterials and the subsequent development of hayfever in childhood in the UK: case-control studies using the General Practice Research Database and the Doctors' Independent Network, Clin Exp Allergy, vol. 33, pp. 1518-25, 2003.
H. Jick and Kaye, J. A., Epidemiology and possible causes of autism, Pharmacotherapy, vol. 23, pp. 1524-30, 2003.
R. Hubbard, Farrington, P., Smith, C., Smeeth, L., and Tattersfield, A., Exposure to tricyclic and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants and the risk of hip fracture, Am J Epidemiol, vol. 158, pp. 77-84, 2003.
J. West, Logan, R. F., Card, T. R., Smith, C., and Hubbard, R., Fracture risk in people with celiac disease: a population-based cohort study, Gastroenterology, vol. 125, pp. 429-36, 2003.
S. Smith, Smith, G., Heatlie, H., Bashford, J., Ashcroft, D., and Millson, D., Head lice diagnosed in general practice in the West Midlands between 1993 and 2000: a survey using the General Practice Research Database, Commun Dis Public Health, vol. 6, pp. 139-43, 2003.
A. Ruigomez, Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Johansson, S., and Wallander, M. A., Is hormone replacement therapy associated with an increased risk of irritable bowel syndrome?, Maturitas, vol. 44, pp. 133-40, 2003.
I. M. Carey, Cook, D. G., De Wilde, S., Bremner, S. A., Richards, N., Caine, S., Strachan, D. P., and Hilton, S. R., Implications of the problem orientated medical record (POMR) for research using electronic GP databases: a comparison of the Doctors Independent Network Database (DIN) and the General Practice Research Database (GPRD), BMC Fam Pract, vol. 4, p. 14, 2003.
J. Hollowell, Ruigomez, A., Johansson, S., Wallander, M. A., and Garcia-Rodriguez, L. A., The incidence of bleeding complications associated with warfarin treatment in general practice in the United Kingdom, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 53, pp. 312-4, 2003.
J. A. Kaye and Jick, H., Incidence of erectile dysfunction and characteristics of patients before and after the introduction of sildenafil in the United Kingdom: cross sectional study with comparison patients, Bmj, vol. 326, pp. 424-5, 2003.
S. Rowlands and Hannaford, P., The incidence of sterilisation in the UK, Bjog, vol. 110, pp. 819-24, 2003.
P. D. van der Linden, Sturkenboom, M. C., Herings, R. M., Leufkens, H. M., Rowlands, S., and Stricker, B. H., Increased risk of achilles tendon rupture with quinolone antibacterial use, especially in elderly patients taking oral corticosteroids, Arch Intern Med, vol. 163, pp. 1801-7, 2003.
J. B. Soriano, Kiri, V. A., Maier, W. C., and Strachan, D., Increasing prevalence of asthma in UK primary care during the 1990s, Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, vol. 7, pp. 415-21, 2003.
C. C. Yang, Jick, S. S., and Jick, H., Lipid-lowering drugs and the risk of depression and suicidal behavior, Arch Intern Med, vol. 163, pp. 1926-32, 2003.
J. M. Gelfand, Berlin, J., Van Voorhees, A., and Margolis, D. J., Lymphoma rates are low but increased in patients with psoriasis: results from a population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom, Arch Dermatol, vol. 139, pp. 1425-9, 2003.
D. J. Margolis, Knauss, J., Bilker, W., and Baumgarten, M., Medical conditions as risk factors for pressure ulcers in an outpatient setting, Age Ageing, vol. 32, pp. 259-64, 2003.
L. M. Howard, Goss, C., Leese, M., and Thornicroft, G., Medical outcome of pregnancy in women with psychotic disorders and their infants in the first year after birth, Br J Psychiatry, vol. 182, pp. 63-7, 2003.
C. Black, Kaye, J. A., and Jick, H., MMR vaccine and idiopathic thrombocytopaenic purpura, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol. 55, pp. 107-11, 2003.
T. Card, Hubbard, R., and Logan, R. F., Mortality in inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based cohort study, Gastroenterology, vol. 125, pp. 1583-90, 2003.
T. P. van Staa, Boulton, F., Cooper, C., Hagenbeek, A., Inskip, H., and Leufkens, H. G., Neutropenia and agranulocytosis in England and Wales: incidence and risk factors, Am J Hematol, vol. 72, pp. 248-54, 2003.
L. A. Garcia Rodriguez and Hernandez-Diaz, S., Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs as a trigger of clinical heart failure, Epidemiology, vol. 14, pp. 240-6, 2003.
L. Smeeth, Boulis, M., Hubbard, R., and Fletcher, A. E., A population based case-control study of cataract and inhaled corticosteroids, Br J Ophthalmol, vol. 87, pp. 1247-51, 2003.
J. Hoare, Bruce, M., and Majeed, A., Prevalence of treated asthma and its management in general practice in England and Wales, 1994–1998, Health Stat Q, vol. 17, pp. 15-22, 2003.
J. B. Soriano, Davis, K. J., Coleman, B., Visick, G., Mannino, D., and Pride, N. B., The proportional Venn diagram of obstructive lung disease: two approximations from the United States and the United Kingdom, Chest, vol. 124, pp. 474-81, 2003.
C. B. Forrest, Majeed, A., Weiner, J. P., Carroll, K., and Bindman, A. B., Referral of children to specialists in the United States and the United kingdom, Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, vol. 157, pp. 279-85, 2003.
H. E. Seaman, de Vries, C. S., and Farmer, R. D., The risk of liver disorders in women prescribed cyproterone acetate in combination with ethinyloestradiol (Dianette): a nested case-control study using the GPRD, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, vol. 12, pp. 541-50, 2003.
S. L. Wood, Jick, H., and Sauve, R., The risk of stillbirth in pregnancies before and after the onset of diabetes, Diabet Med, vol. 20, pp. 703-7, 2003.
[Page last reviewed 5 July 2021]