Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,800 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 June 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 229 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2809 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
J. D. Pauling, McGrogan, A., Snowball, J., and McHugh, N. J., Epidemiology of systemic sclerosis in the UK: an analysis of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
A. G. Lai, Pasea, L., Banerjee, A., Hall, G., Denaxas, S., Chang, W. H., Katsoulis, M., Williams, B., Pillay, D., Noursadeghi, M., Linch, D., Hughes, D., Forster, M. D., Turnbull, C., Fitzpatrick, N. K., Boyd, K., Foster, G. R., Enver, T., Nafilyan, V., Humberstone, B., Neal, R. D., Cooper, M., Jones, M., Pritchard-Jones, K., Sullivan, R., Davie, C., Lawler, M., and Hemingway, H., Estimated impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer services and excess 1-year mortality in people with cancer and multimorbidity: near real-time data on cancer care, cancer deaths and a population-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e043828, 2020.
A. Banerjee, Pasea, L., Harris, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Torralbo, A., Shallcross, L., Noursadeghi, M., Pillay, D., Sebire, N., Holmes, C., Pagel, C., Wong, W. K., Langenberg, C., Williams, B., Denaxas, S., and Hemingway, H., Estimating excess 1-year mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic according to underlying conditions and age: a population-based cohort study, Lancet, vol. 395, pp. 1715-1725, 2020.
M. D. Danese, Pemberton-Ross, P., Catterick, D., and Villa, G., Estimation of the increased risk associated with recurrent events or polyvascular atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the United Kingdom, Eur J Prev Cardiol, p. 2047487319899212, 2020.
R. Mathur, Palla, L., Farmer, R. E., Chaturvedi, N., and Smeeth, L., Ethnic differences in the severity and clinical management of type 2 diabetes at time of diagnosis: A cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 160, p. 108006, 2020.
R. Mathur, Farmer, R. E., Eastwood, S. V., Chaturvedi, N., Douglas, I., and Smeeth, L., Ethnic disparities in initiation and intensification of diabetes treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes in the UK, 1990-2017: A cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003106, 2020.
E. M. Heintjes, Bezemer, I. D., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Smits, E., Booth, H. P., Dedman, D., He, Y., Hoti, F., Vehkala, M., de Vogel, S., Robinson, N. J., Appenteng, K., and van Beest, F. J. A. Penn, Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Additional Risk Minimization Measure to Reduce the Risk of Prescribing Mirabegron to Patients with Severe Uncontrolled Hypertension in Four European Countries, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 12, pp. 423-433, 2020.
R. Palladino, Marrie, R. A., Majeed, A., and Chataway, J., Evaluating the Risk of Macrovascular Events and Mortality Among People With Multiple Sclerosis in England, JAMA Neurol, 2020.
Y. Li, Sperrin, M., Martin, G. P., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Examining the impact of data quality and completeness of electronic health records on predictions of patients' risks of cardiovascular disease, Int J Med Inform, vol. 133, p. 104033, 2020.
M. Besford, Graham, S., Sammon, C., Mehmud, F., Allan, V., Alikhan, R., and Ramagopalan, S., Factors associated with non-prescription of oral anticoagulant treatment in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients with dementia: a CPRD-HES study, Age Ageing, 2020.
G. Requena, Wolf, A., Williams, R., Dedman, D., Quint, J. K., Murray-Thomas, T., and Pimenta, J. M., Feasibility of using Clinical Practice Research Datalink data to identify patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to enrol into real-world trials, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
H. Hope, Parisi, R., Ashcroft, D. M., Williams, R., Coton, S., Kosidou, K., Pierce, M., and Abel, K. M., Fertility trends of women with serious mental illness in the United Kingdom 1992-2017: A primary care cohort study using the clinical practice research datalink, J Affect Disord, vol. 269, pp. 141-147, 2020.
J. E. Amegadzie, Gamble, J. M., Farrell, J., and Gao, Z., Gender Differences in Inhaled Pharmacotherapy Utilization in Patients with Obstructive Airway Diseases (OADs): A Population-Based Study, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 15, pp. 2355-2366, 2020.
A. Tucker, Wang, Z., Rotalinti, Y., and Myles, P., Generating high-fidelity synthetic patient data for assessing machine learning healthcare software, NPJ Digit Med, 2020.
J. Wu, Mackie, S. L., and Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Glucocorticoid dose-dependent risk of type 2 diabetes in six immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: a population-based cohort analysis, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 8, 2020.
R. E. Costello, Yimer, B. B., Roads, P., Jani, M., and Dixon, W. G., Glucocorticoid use is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
X. V. Peng, McCrimmon, R. J., Shepherd, L., Boss, A., Lubwama, R., Dex, T., Skolnik, N., Ji, L., Avogaro, A., and Blonde, L., Glycemic Control Following GLP-1 RA or Basal Insulin Initiation in Real-World Practice: A Retrospective, Observational, Longitudinal Cohort Study, Diabetes Ther, 2020.
S. Jarvis, Parslow, R. C., Hewitt, C., Mitchell, S., and Fraser, L. K., GPs' role in caring for children and young people with life-limiting conditions: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
L. K. Fraser, Murtagh, F. E. M., Sheldon, T., Gilbody, S., and Hewitt, C., Health of mothers of children with a life-limiting condition: a protocol for comparative cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e034024, 2020.
A. Gayle, Schoof, N., Alves, M., Clarke, D., Raabe, C., Das, P., Del Galdo, F., and Maher, T. M., Healthcare Resource Utilization Among Patients in England with Systemic Sclerosis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease: A Retrospective Database Analysis, Adv Ther, 2020.
D. Lewer, Padmanathan, P., M. Arfeen, Q. Ul, Denaxas, S., Forbes, H., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., and Hickman, M., Healthcare use by people who use illicit opioids (HUPIO): development of a cohort based on electronic primary care records in England, Wellcome Open Res, vol. 5, p. 282, 2020.
C. L. Morgan, Varga, S., Tsong, W., Jenkins-Jones, S., and Holden, S., Healthcare utilization and associated costs following initiation of perampanel in patients with epilepsy, Epilepsy Behav, vol. 110, p. 107137, 2020.
S. Hawley, Shaw, N. J., Delmestri, A., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Cooper, C., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., and Javaid, M. K., Higher prevalence of non-skeletal comorbidity related to X-linked hypophosphataemia: a UK parallel cohort study using CPRD, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
R. Ma, Cecil, E., Bottle, A., French, R., and Saxena, S., Impact of a pay-for-performance scheme for long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) advice on contraceptive uptake and abortion in British primary care: An interrupted time series study, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003333, 2020.
C. S. Cabrera, Lee, A. S., Olsson, M., Schnecke, V., Westman, K., Lind, M., Greasley, P. J., and Skrtic, S., Impact of CKD Progression on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Contemporary UK Cohort of Individuals With Diabetes, Kidney Int Rep, vol. 5, pp. 1651-1660, 2020.
A. Pate, Emsley, R., and Van Staa, T., Impact of lowering the risk threshold for statin treatment on statin prescribing: a descriptive study in English primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 70, pp. e765-e771, 2020.
A. Pate, Emsley, R., Sperrin, M., Martin, G. P., and Van Staa, T., Impact of sample size on the stability of risk scores from clinical prediction models: a case study in cardiovascular disease, Diagn Progn Res, vol. 4, p. 14, 2020.
A. Pate, Elliott, R. A., Gkountouras, G., Thompson, A., Emsley, R., and Van Staa, T., The impact of statin discontinuation and restarting rates on the optimal time to initiate statins and on the number of cardiovascular events prevented, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
J. Tazare, Smeeth, L., Evans, S. J. W., Williamson, E., and Douglas, I. J., Implementing high-dimensional propensity score principles to improve confounder adjustment in UK electronic health records, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
H. J. Forbes, Bhaskaran, K., Grint, D., Hu, V. H., Langan, S. M., McDonald, H. I., Morton, C., Smeeth, L., Walker, J. L., and Warren-Gash, C., Incidence of acute complications of herpes zoster among immunocompetent adults in England: a matched cohort study using routine health data, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
F. Tyrer, Zaccardi, F., Khunti, K., and Morriss, R., Incidence of Depression and First-Line Antidepressant Therapy in People with Obesity and Depression in Primary Care, Obesity (Silver Spring), vol. 28, pp. 977-984, 2020.
J. M. Ryan, Cameron, M. H., Liverani, S., Smith, K. J., O'Connell, N., Peterson, M. D., Anokye, N., Victor, C., and Boland, F., Incidence of falls among adults with cerebral palsy: a cohort study using primary care data, Dev Med Child Neurol, vol. 62, pp. 477-482, 2020.
C. V. Chalitsios, McKeever, T. M., and Shaw, D. E., Incidence of osteoporosis and fragility fractures in asthma: a UK population-based matched cohort study, Eur Respir J, 2020.
L. Grønbaek, Otete, H., Ban, L., Crooks, C., Card, T., Jepsen, P., and West, J., Incidence, prevalence, and mortality of autoimmune hepatitis in England 1997-2015. A population-based cohort study, Liver Int, 2020.
M. S. M. Persson, Harman, K. E., Vinogradova, Y., Langan, S. M., Hippisley-Cox, J., Thomas, K. S., and Gran, S., Incidence, prevalence, and mortality of bullous pemphigoid in England 1998-2017: a population-based cohort study, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
O. B. Esan, Perera, R., McCarthy, N., Violato, M., and Fanshawe, T. R., Incidence, risk factors, and health service burden of sequelae of campylobacter and non-typhoidal salmonella infections in England, 2000-2015: A retrospective cohort study using linked electronic health records, J Infect, 2020.
R. Persson, Lee, S., Yood, M. U., Wagner, M., Minton, N., Niemcryk, S., Lindholm, A., Evans, A., and Jick, S., Incident cardiovascular disease in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis: A multi-database study, Mult Scler Relat Disord, vol. 37, p. 101423, 2020.
R. Persson, Lee, S., Yood, M. U., Mc, M. R. Wagner, Minton, N., Niemcryk, S., Lindholm, A., Evans, A. M., and Jick, S., Incident depression in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis: a multi-database study, Eur J Neurol, 2020.
C. Zecca, Disanto, G., Sacco, R., MacLachlan, S., Kuhle, J., Ramagopalan, S. V., and Gobbi, C., Increasing cancer risk over calendar year in people with multiple sclerosis: a case-control study, J Neurol, 2020.
J. Rouette, Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Bouganim, N., Platt, R. W., and Azoulay, L., Incretin-based drugs and risk of lung cancer among individuals with type 2 diabetes, Diabet Med, 2020.
T. Rathod-Mistry, Marshall, M., Campbell, P., Bailey, J., Chew-Graham, C. A., Croft, P., Frisher, M., Hayward, R., Negi, R., Robinson, L., Singh, S., Sumathipala, A., Thein, N., Walters, K., Weich, S., and Jordan, K. P., Indicators of dementia disease progression in primary care: an electronic health record cohort study, Eur J Neurol, 2020.
R. Persson, Lee, S., M. Yood, U., Mc, C. M. Wagner, Minton, N., Niemcryk, S., Lindholm, A., Evans, A. M., and Jick, S. S., Infections in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis: A multi-database study, Mult Scler Relat Disord, vol. 41, p. 101982, 2020.
J. P. A. Houwen, Egberts, A. C. G., de Boer, A., van Maarseveen, E. M., Houwen, R. H. J., and Lalmohamed, A., Influence of allopurinol on thiopurine associated toxicity: A retrospective population-based cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
C. S. Osam, Pierce, M., Hope, H., Ashcroft, D. M., and Abel, K. M., The influence of maternal mental illness on vaccination uptake in children: a UK population-based cohort study, Eur J Epidemiol, 2020.
L. E. Clarson, Bajpai, R., Whittle, R., Belcher, J., A. Sultan, A., Kwok, C. S., Welsh, V., Mamas, M., and Mallen, C. D., Interstitial lung disease is a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease and myocardial infarction, Heart, 2020.
C. Martinez, Wallenhorst, C., Rietbrock, S., and Freedman, B., Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Risk Following Vitamin K Antagonist Cessation in Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation: A Cohort Study, J Am Heart Assoc, vol. 9, p. e014376, 2020.
H. J. L. Heerspink, Karasik, A., Thuresson, M., Melzer-Cohen, C., Chodick, G., Khunti, K., Wilding, J. P. H., Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Cea-Soriano, L., Kohsaka, S., Nicolucci, A., Lucisano, G., Lin, F. J., Wang, C. Y., Wittbrodt, E., Fenici, P., and Kosiborod, M., Kidney outcomes associated with use of SGLT2 inhibitors in real-world clinical practice (CVD-REAL 3): a multinational observational cohort study, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 8, pp. 27-35, 2020.
M. J. Brookes, Waller, J., Cappelleri, J. C., Modesto, I., DiBonaventura, M. D., Bohm, N., Mokgokong, R., Massey, O., Wood, R., and Bargo, D., Living with Ulcerative Colitis Study (LUCY) in England: a retrospective study evaluating healthcare resource utilisation and direct healthcare costs of postoperative care in ulcerative colitis, BMJ Open Gastroenterol, vol. 7, 2020.
I. Schlackow, Simons, C., Oke, J., Feakins, B., O'Callaghan, C. A., Hobbs, F. D. R., Lasserson, D., Stevens, R. J., Perera, R., and Mihaylova, B., Long-term health outcomes of people with reduced kidney function in the UK: A modelling study using population health data, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003478, 2020.
C. Salisbury, Lay-Flurrie, S., Bankhead, C. R., Fuller, A., Murphy, M., Caddick, B., Ordonez-Mena, J. M., Holt, T., Nicholson, B. D., Perera, R., and Hobbs, F. R., Measuring the complexity of general practice consultations: a Delphi and cross-sectional study in English primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
[Page last reviewed 4 June 2021]