Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,700 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 March 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 224 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2741 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
D. Alarkawi, Ali, M. S., Bliuc, D., Pallares, N., Tebe, C., Elhussein, L., Caskey, F. J., Arden, N. K., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Abrahamsen, B., Diez-Perez, A., Pascual, J., Perez-Saez, M. J., Center, J. R., Judge, A., Cooper, C., Javaid, M. K., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Oral bisphosphonate use and all-cause mortality in patients with moderate-severe (grade 3B-5D) chronic kidney disease: a population-based cohort study, J Bone Miner Res, 2020.
J. J. Lee, Smith, M., Bankhead, C., R. Salazar, P., Kousoulis, A. A., Butler, C. C., and Wang, K., Oseltamivir and influenza-related complications in children: a retrospective cohort in primary care, Eur Respir J, 2020.
A. Gadoud, Kane, E., Oliver, S. E., Johnson, M. J., Macleod, U., and Allgar, V., Palliative care for non-cancer conditions in primary care: a time trend analysis in the UK (2009-2014), BMJ Support Palliat Care, 2020.
M. M. Loiacono, Mahmud, S. M., Chit, A., van Aalst, R., Kwong, J. C., Mitsakakis, N., Skinner, L., Thommes, E., Bricout, H., and Grootendorst, P., Patient and practice level factors associated with seasonal influenza vaccine uptake among at-risk adults in England, 2011 to 2016: An age-stratified retrospective cohort study, Vaccine X, vol. 4, p. 100054, 2020.
C. Siffel, Page, M., Maxwell, T., Thun, B., Kolb, N., Rosenlund, M., von Bredow, D., and Keja, J., Patterns of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Use in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Europe, J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol, 2020.
R. K. Akyea, Qureshi, N., Kai, J., and Weng, S. F., Performance and clinical utility of supervised machine-learning approaches in detecting familial hypercholesterolaemia in primary care, NPJ Digit Med, vol. 3, p. 142, 2020.
J. R. Winter, Charlton, J., Ashworth, M., Bunce, C., and Gulliford, M. C., Peritonsillar Abscess and Antibiotic Prescribing for Respiratory Infection in Primary Care: A Population-Based Cohort Study and Decision-Analytic Model, Ann Fam Med, vol. 18, pp. 390-396, 2020.
S. Weir, Samnaliev, M., Kuo, T. C., Tierney, T. S., Manca, A., Taylor, R. S., Bruce, J., Eldabe, S., and Cumming, D., Persistent postoperative pain and healthcare costs associated with instrumented and non-instrumented spinal surgery: a case-control study, J Orthop Surg Res, vol. 15, p. 127, 2020.
I. Matthews, Lu, X., Xia, Q., Black, W., and Nozad, B., Pneumococcal vaccine coverage among individuals aged 18 to 64 years old with underlying medical conditions in the UK: a retrospective database analysis, BMC Public Health, vol. 20, p. 1584, 2020.
B. M. Hicks, Busby, J., Mills, K., O'Neil, F. A., McIntosh, S. A., Zhang, S. D., Liberante, F. G., and Cardwell, C. R., Post-diagnostic antipsychotic use and cancer mortality: a population based cohort study, BMC Cancer, vol. 20, p. 804, 2020.
C. A. Gravel, Filion, K. B., Reynier, P. M., and Platt, R. W., Postmyocardial Infarction Statin Exposure and the Risk of Stroke with Weighting for Outcome Misclassification, Epidemiology, vol. 31, pp. 880-888, 2020.
K. Bowman, Jones, L., Masoli, J., Mujica-Mota, R., Strain, D., Butchart, J., Valderas, J. M., Fortinsky, R. H., Melzer, D., and Delgado, J., Predicting incident delirium diagnoses using data from primary-care electronic health records, Age Ageing, vol. 49, pp. 374-381, 2020.
S. J. Kiddle, Whittaker, H. R., Seaman, S. R., and Quint, J. K., Prediction of five-year mortality after COPD diagnosis using primary care records, PLoS One, vol. 15, p. e0236011, 2020.
C. Martinez, Katholing, A., Wallenhorst, C., and Cohen, A. T., Prediction of significant bleeding during vitamin K antagonist treatment for venous thromboembolism in outpatients, Br J Haematol, 2020.
B. Coles, Khunti, K., Booth, S., Zaccardi, F., Davies, M. J., and Gray, L. J., Prediction of type 2 diabetes risk in people with non-diabetic hyperglycaemia: model derivation and validation using UK primary care data, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e037937, 2020.
J. Blackwell, Saxena, S., Jayasooriya, N., Bottle, A., Petersen, I., Hotopf, M., Alexakis, C., and Pollok, R. C., Prevalence and duration of gastrointestinal symptoms before diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and predictors of timely specialist review: a population-based study, J Crohns Colitis, 2020.
H. Carreira, Strongman, H., Peppa, M., McDonald, H., dos-Santos-Silva, I., Stanway, S., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Prevalence of COVID-19-related risk factors and risk of severe influenza outcomes in cancer survivors: A matched cohort study using linked English electronic health records data, EClinicalMedicine, 2020.
A. Gopfert, Deeny, S. R., Fisher, R., and Stafford, M., Primary care consultation length by deprivation and multimorbidity in England: an observational study using electronic patient records, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
W. Gao, Gulliford, M., Morgan, M., and Higginson, I. J., Primary care service use by end-of-life cancer patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study in the United Kingdom, BMC Fam Pract, vol. 21, p. 76, 2020.
L. R. Rodgers, Dennis, J. M., Shields, B. M., Mounce, L., Fisher, I., Hattersley, A. T., and Henley, W. E., Prior event rate ratio adjustment produced estimates consistent with randomised trial: a diabetes case study, J Clin Epidemiol, 2020.
B. D. Nicholson, Aveyard, P., Price, S. J., Hobbs, F. R., Koshiaris, C., and Hamilton, W., Prioritising primary care patients with unexpected weight loss for cancer investigation: diagnostic accuracy study, Bmj, vol. 370, p. m2651, 2020.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Winter, J. R., Sun, X., Rezel-Potts, E., Bunce, C., Fox, R., Little, P., Hay, A. D., Moore, M. V., and Ashworth, M., Probability of sepsis after infection consultations in primary care in the United Kingdom in 2002-2017: Population-based cohort study and decision analytic model, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003202, 2020.
Y. Chen, Hayward, R., Chew-Graham, C. A., Hubbard, R., Croft, P., Sims, K., and Jordan, K. P., Prognostic value of first-recorded breathlessness for future chronic respiratory and heart disease a cohort study using a UK national primary care database, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
S. S. Jick, Hagberg, K. W., Persson, R., Vasilakis-Scaramozza, C., Williams, T., Crellin, E., and Myles, P., Quality and completeness of diagnoses recorded in the new CPRD Aurum Database: evaluation of pulmonary embolism, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
H. Carreira, Williams, R., Dempsey, H., Stanway, S., Smeeth, L., and Bhaskaran, K., Quality of life and mental health in breast cancer survivors compared with non-cancer controls: a study of patient-reported outcomes in the United Kingdom, J Cancer Surviv, 2020.
M. Quiroga, Shephard, E. A., Mounce, L. T. A., Carney, M., Hamilton, W. T., and Price, S. J., Quantifying the impact of pre-existing conditions on the stage of oesophagogastric cancer at diagnosis: a primary care cohort study using electronic medical records, Fam Pract, 2020.
J. Watson, Whiting, P., Salisbury, C., Banks, J., and Hamilton, W., Raised inflammatory markers as a predictor of one-year mortality: a cohort study in primary care in the UK using electronic health record data, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e036027, 2020.
K. Wing, Williamson, E., Carpenter, J. R., Wise, L., Schneeweiss, S., Smeeth, L., Quint, J. K., and Douglas, I., Real world effects of COPD medications: a cohort study with validation against RCT results, Eur Respir J, 2020.
A. Bakhai, Petri, H., Vahidnia, F., Wolf, C., Ding, Y., Foskett, N., and Sculpher, M., Real-world data on the incidence, mortality, and cost of ischaemic stroke and major bleeding events among non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients in England, J Eval Clin Pract, 2020.
A. Seesaghur, Petruski-Ivleva, N., Banks, V., Wang, J. R., Mattox, P., Hoeben, E., Maskell, J., Neasham, D., Reynolds, S. L., and Kafatos, G., Real-world reproducibility study characterizing patients newly diagnosed with multiple myeloma using Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a UK-based electronic health records database, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
R. Lahoz, Fagan, A., McSharry, M., Proudfoot, C., Corda, S., and Studer, R., Recurrent heart failure hospitalizations are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart failure in Clinical Practice Research Datalink, ESC Heart Fail, 2020.
A. Price, Ford, T., Janssens, A., Williams, A. J., and Newlove-Delgado, T., Regional analysis of UK primary care prescribing and adult service referrals for young people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, BJPsych Open, vol. 6, p. e7, 2020.
G. C. Meier, Watkins, J., McEwan, P., and Pockett, R. D., Resource use and direct medical costs of acute respiratory illness in the UK based on linked primary and secondary care records from 2001 to 2009, PLoS One, vol. 15, p. e0236472, 2020.
L. Manikam, Schilder, A. G. M., Lakhanpaul, M., Littlejohns, P., Alexander, E. C., and Hayward, A., Respiratory tract infection-related healthcare utilisation in children with Down's syndrome, Infection, vol. 48, pp. 403-410, 2020.
J. A. Prior, Paskins, Z., Whittle, R., Abdul-Sultan, A., Chew-Graham, C. A., Muller, S., Bajpai, R., Shepherd, T. A., Sumathipala, A., and Mallen, C. D., Rheumatological conditions as risk factors for self-harm: A retrospective cohort study, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), 2020.
A. K. Wright, Suarez-Ortegon, M. F., Read, S. H., Kontopantelis, E., Buchan, I., Emsley, R., Sattar, N., Ashcroft, D. M., Wild, S. H., and Rutter, M. K., Risk Factor Control and Cardiovascular Event Risk in People With Type 2 Diabetes in Primary and Secondary Prevention Settings, Circulation, vol. 142, pp. 1925-1936, 2020.
E. Tafesse, Hurst, M., Hoskin, L., Badora, K., Sugrue, D., Qin, L., James, G., and McEwan, P., Risk factors associated with the incidence and recurrence of hyperkalaemia in patients with cardiorenal conditions, Int J Clin Pract, p. e13941, 2020.
A. P. McGovern, Hogg, M., Shields, B. M., Sattar, N. A., Holman, R. R., Pearson, E. R., Hattersley, A. T., Jones, A. G., and Dennis, J. M., Risk factors for genital infections in people initiating SGLT2 inhibitors and their impact on discontinuation, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 8, 2020.
C. A. Lawson, Zaccardi, F., Squire, I., Okhai, H., Davies, M., Huang, W., Mamas, M., Lam, C. S. P., Khunti, K., and Kadam, U. T., Risk Factors for Heart Failure: 20-Year Population-Based Trends by Sex, Socioeconomic Status, and Ethnicity, Circ Heart Fail, vol. 13, p. e006472, 2020.
D. A. Enoch, Murray-Thomas, T., Adomakoh, N., Dedman, D., Georgopali, A., Francis, N., and Karas, A., Risk of complications and mortality following recurrent and non-recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection: a retrospective, observational, database study in England, J Hosp Infect, 2020.
J. C. E. Lane, Weaver, J., Kostka, K., Duarte-Salles, T., Abrahao, M. T. F., Alghoul, H., Alser, O., Alshammari, T. M., Areia, C., Biedermann, P., Banda, J. M., Burn, E., Casajust, P., Fišter, K., Hardin, J., Hester, L., Hripcsak, G., Kaas-Hansen, B. S., Khosla, S., Kolovos, S., Lynch, K. E., Makadia, R., Mehta, P. P., Morales, D. R., Morgan-Stewart, H., Mosseveld, M., Newby, D., Nyberg, F., Ostropolets, A., R. Park, W., Prats-Uribe, A., Rao, G. A., Reich, C., Rijnbeek, P., Sena, A. G., Shoaibi, A., Spotnitz, M., Vignesh, S., Suchard, M. A., Vizcaya, D., Wen, H., de Wilde, M., Xie, J., You, S. C., Zhang, L., Lovestone, S., Ryan, P., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Risk of depression, suicide and psychosis with hydroxychloroquine treatment for rheumatoid arthritis: a multinational network cohort study, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
T. Burkard, Rauch, M., Spoendlin, J., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Risk of hand osteoarthritis in new users of hormone replacement therapy: A nested case-control analysis, Maturitas, vol. 132, pp. 17-23, 2020.
H. Forbes, Douglas, I., Finn, A., Breuer, J., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Packer, S., Langan, S. M., Mansfield, K. E., Marlow, R., Whitaker, H., and Warren-Gash, C., Risk of herpes zoster after exposure to varicella to explore the exogenous boosting hypothesis: self controlled case series study using UK electronic healthcare data, Bmj, vol. 368, p. l6987, 2020.
Z. Z. N. Yiu, Parisi, R., Lunt, M., Warren, R. B., Griffiths, C. E. M., Langan, S. M., and Ashcroft, D. M., Risk of Hospitalisation and Death due to Infection in People with Psoriasis: a Population-based Cohort Study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
J. C. E. Lane, Weaver, J., Kostka, K., Duarte-Salles, T., Abrahao, M. T. F., Alghoul, H., Alser, O., Alshammari, T. M., Biedermann, P., Banda, J. M., Burn, E., Casajust, P., Conover, M. M., Culhane, A. C., Davydov, A., DuVall, S. L., Dymshyts, D., Fernandez-Bertolin, S., Fišter, K., Hardin, J., Hester, L., Hripcsak, G., Kaas-Hansen, B. S., Kent, S., Khosla, S., Kolovos, S., Lambert, C. G., van der Lei, J., Lynch, K. E., Makadia, R., Margulis, A. V., Matheny, M. E., Mehta, P., Morales, D. R., Morgan-Stewart, H., Mosseveld, M., Newby, D., Nyberg, F., Ostropolets, A., Park, R. W., Prats-Uribe, A., Rao, G. A., Reich, C., Reps, J., Rijnbeek, P., Sathappan, S. M. K., Schuemie, M., Seager, S., Sena, A. G., Shoaibi, A., Spotnitz, M., Suchard, M. A., Torre, C. O., Vizcaya, D., Wen, H., de Wilde, M., Xie, J., You, S. C., Zhang, L., Zhuk, O., Ryan, P., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Risk of hydroxychloroquine alone and in combination with azithromycin in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a multinational, retrospective study, Lancet Rheumatol, vol. 2, pp. e698-e711, 2020.
Y. Zhang, Souverein, P. C., Gardarsdottir, H., van den Ham, H. A., van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, and de Boer, A., Risk of major bleeding among users of direct oral anticoagulants combined with interacting drugs: A population-based nested case-control study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
K. H. Thomas, Davies, N. M., Taylor, A. E., Taylor, G. M. J., Gunnell, D., Martin, R. M., and Douglas, I., Risk of neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular adverse events following treatment with varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink: a case-crossover study, Addiction, 2020.
I. J. A. de Bruin, Wyers, C. E., Souverein, P. C., van Staa, T. P., Geusens, P., van den Bergh, J. P. W., de Vries, F., and Driessen, J. H. M., The risk of new fragility fractures in patients with chronic kidney disease and hip fracture-a population-based cohort study in the UK, Osteoporos Int, 2020.
R. Charlton, Green, A., Shaddick, G., Snowball, J., Nightingale, A., Tillett, W., Smith, C., and McHugh, N., Risk of osteoarthritis in an incident cohort of people with psoriatic arthritis: a population-based cohort study, J Rheumatol, 2020.
C. V. Chalitsios, Shaw, D. E., and McKeever, T. M., Risk of osteoporosis and fragility fractures in asthma due to oral and inhaled corticosteroids: two population-based nested case-control studies, Thorax, 2020.
[Page last reviewed 8 March 2021]