Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 3,000 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography listed below is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 8 February 2024).

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: CPRD bibliography PDF February 2024 (PDF, 4.2MB, 309 pages) 

Download: CPRD bibliography .BIB February 2024 (BIB, 1.3MB, 1 page)

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website

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Therapies for Long COVID in non-hospitalised individuals: from symptoms, patient-reported outcomes and immunology to targeted therapies (The TLC Study)


Authors: S. Haroon, K. Nirantharakumar, S. Hughes, A. Subramanian, O. Aiyegbusi, E. Davies, P. Myles, T. Williams, G. Turner, J. Chandan, C. McMullan, J. Lord, D. Wraith, K. McGee, A. Denniston, T. Taverner, L. Jackson, E. Sapey, G. Gkoutos, K. Gokhale, E. Leggett, C. Iles, C. Frost, G. McNamara, A. Bamford, T. Marshall, D. Zemedikun, G. Price, S. Marwaha, N. Simms-Williams, K. Brown, A. Walker, K. Jones, K. Matthews, J. Camaradou, M. Saint-Cricq, S. Kumar, Y. Alder, D. Stanton, L. Agyen, M. Baber, H. Blaize, M. Calvert


Mortality in non-exacerbating COPD: a longitudinal analysis of UK primary care data


Authors: A. Lenoir, H. Whittaker, A. Gayle, D. Jarvis, J. Quint


Predictive performance of a competing risk cardiovascular prediction tool CRISK compared to QRISK3 in older people and those with comorbidity: population cohort study


Authors: S. Livingstone, B. Guthrie, P. Donnan, A. Thompson, D. Morales


Left-sided heart failure burden and mortality in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a population-based study


Authors: A. Koteci, A. Morgan, L. Portas, H. Whittaker, C. Kallis, P. George, J. Quint


Mortality of Care Home Residents and Community-Dwelling Controls During the COVID-19 Pandemic in 2020: Matched Cohort Study


Authors: M. Gulliford, A. Prevost, A. Clegg, E. Rezel-Potts


A retrospective longitudinal cohort study of the clinical burden in myasthenia gravis


Authors: L. Harris, S. Graham, S. MacLachlan, A. Exuzides, S. Jacob


Mapping the risk of infections in patients with multiple sclerosis: A multi-database study in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD and Aurum


Authors: M. Leung, M. Bazelier, P. Souverein, B. Uitdehaag, O. Klungel, H. Leufkens, R. Pajouheshnia


Intensity of care in cancer patients in the last year of life: a retrospective data linkage study


Authors: X. Luta, K. Diernberger, J. Bowden, J. Droney, P. Hall, J. Marti


Role of Antihypertensive Treatment and Blood Pressure Control in the Occurrence of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: a Population-Based Study of Linked Electronic Health Records


Authors: Al Khalaf, A. Khashan, L. Chappell, J. É, F. McCarthy


Association between Inhaled β(2)-agonists Initiation and Risk of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events: A Population-based Nested Case-Control Study


Authors: J. Amegadzie, J. Gamble, J. Farrell, Z. Gao


Background rates of five thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndromes of special interest for COVID-19 vaccine safety surveillance: Incidence between 2017 and 2019 and patient profiles from 38.6 million people in six European countries


Authors: E. Burn, X. Li, K. Kostka, H. Stewart, C. Reich, S. Seager, T. Duarte-Salles, S. Fernandez-Bertolin, M. Aragón, C. Reyes, E. Martinez-Hernandez, E. Marti, A. Delmestri, K. Verhamme, P. Rijnbeek, S. Horban, D. Morales, D. Prieto-Alhambra


Mortality of Care Home Residents and Community-Dwelling Controls During the COVID-19 Pandemic in 2020: Matched Cohort Study


Authors: M. Gulliford, A. Prevost, A. Clegg, E. Rezel-Potts


Association between mirtazapine use and serious self-harm in people with depression: an active comparator cohort study using UK electronic health records


Authors: R. Joseph, R. Jack, R. Morriss, R. Knaggs, D. Butler, C. Hollis, J. Hippisley-Cox, C. Coupland


Disease Burden and Healthcare Utilization Among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in England


Authors: L. Sansbury, D. Lipson, C. Bains, G. Anley, K. Rothnie, A. Ismaila


Natural history and burden of Huntington's disease in the UK: A population-based cohort study


Authors: H. Furby, A. Siadimas, L. Rutten-Jacobs, F. Rodrigues, E. Wild


Privacy-preserving estimation of an optimal individualized treatment rule: a case study in maximizing time to severe depression-related outcomes


Authors: E. Moodie, J. Coulombe, C. Danieli, C. Renoux, S. Shortreed


Health Needs and Their Relationship with Life Expectancy in People with and without Intellectual Disabilities in England


Authors: F. Tyrer, R. Morriss, R. Kiani, S. Gangadharan, H. Kundaje, M. Rutherford


Inhaled Corticosteroid Withdrawal and Change in Lung Function in Primary Care Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients in England


Authors: H. Whittaker, K. Wing, I. Douglas, S. Kiddle, J. Quint


Treatment and prescribing trends of antihypertensive drugs in 2.7 million UK primary care patients over 31 years: a population-based cohort study


Authors: J. Rouette, E. McDonald, T. Schuster, J. Brophy, L. Azoulay


Facilitating safety evaluation in maternal immunization trials: a retrospective cohort study to assess pregnancy outcomes and events of interest in low-risk pregnancies in England


Authors: M. Riley, D. Lambrelli, S. Graham, O. Henry, A. Sutherland, A. Schmidt, N. Sawalhi-Leckenby, R. Donaldson, S. Stoszek


Characteristics of New Users of Single- and Multiple-Inhaler Triple Therapy for COPD in Primary Care in England


Authors: K. Rothnie, S. Joksaite, L. Sansbury, C. Compton, V. Di Boscio, A. Ismaila


Long-term impact of pre-incision antibiotics on children born by caesarean section: a longitudinal study based on UK electronic health records


Authors: D. Sumilo, K. Nirantharakumar, B. Willis, G. Rudge, J. Martin, K. Gokhale, R. Thayakaran, N. Adderley, J. Chandan, K. Okoth, I. Harris, R. Hewston, M. Skrybant, J. Deeks, P. Brocklehurst


Temporal trends and patterns in atrial fibrillation incidence: A population-based study of 3·4 million individuals


Authors: J. Wu, R. Nadarajah, Y. Nakao, K. Nakao, C. Wilkinson, M. Mamas, A. Camm, C. Gale


Incidence and pattern of mycophenolate discontinuation associated with abnormal monitoring blood-test results: cohort study using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum


Authors: G. Nakafero, M. Grainge, T. Card, C. Mallen, R. Riley, D. van der Windt, C. Fox, M. Taal, G. Aithal, H. Williams, A. Abhishek


Prevalence and healthcare resource utilization of patients with Dravet syndrome: Retrospective linkage cohort study


Authors: Owen Pickrell, F. Guelfucci, M. Martin, R. Holland, R. Chin


Primary care consultations and pain medicine prescriptions: a comparison between patients with and without chronic pain after total knee replacement


Authors: R. Pinedo-Villanueva, S. Kolovos, C. Maronga, A. Delmestri, N. Howells, A. Judge, R. Gooberman-Hill, V. Wylde


Epidemiology and treatment patterns of UK women diagnosed with vasomotor symptoms: Findings from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD database


Authors: A. Kiran, N. Schultz, E. Siddiqui, L. Todorova, B. Van der Poel, M. Stoelzel, L. Robinson


A retrospective cohort study measured predicting and validating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in individuals with chronic kidney disease


Authors: A. Dashtban, M. Mizani, S. Denaxas, D. Nitsch, J. Quint, R. Corbett, J. Mamza, T. Morris, M. Mamas, D. Lawlor, K. Khunti, C. Sudlow, H. Hemingway, A. Banerjee


Time Trends in the Incidence Rates of Venous Thromboembolism Following Colorectal Resection by Indication and Operative Technique


Authors: C. Lewis-Lloyd, C. Crooks, J. West, O. Peacock, D. Humes


Diagnoses after newly recorded abdominal pain in primary care: observational cohort study


Authors: S. Price, N. Gibson, W. Hamilton, J. Bostock, E. Shephard


Migrants' primary care utilisation before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in England: An interrupted time series analysis


Authors: C. Zhang, Y. Boukari, N. Pathak, R. Mathur, S. Katikireddi, P. Patel, I. Campos-Matos, D. Lewer, V. Nguyen, G. Hugenholtz, R. Burns, A. Mulick, A. Henderson, R. Aldridge


Suicide and death by other causes among patients with a severe mental illness: cohort study comparing risks among patients discharged from inpatient care v. those treated in the community


Authors: R. Musgrove, M. Carr, N. Kapur, C. Chew-Graham, F. Mughal, D. Ashcroft, R. Webb


Rise in prescribing for anxiety in UK primary care between 2003 and 2018: a population-based cohort study using Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: C. Archer, S. MacNeill, B. Mars, K. Turner, D. Kessler, N. Wiles


Clinical code usage in UK general practice: a cohort study exploring 18 conditions over 14 years


Authors: S. Zghebi, D. Reeves, C. Grigoroglou, B. McMillan, D. Ashcroft, R. Parisi, E. Kontopantelis


Significant reduction in chronic kidney disease progression with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors compared to dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in adults with type 2 diabetes in a UK clinical setting


Authors: I. Idris, R. Zhang, J. Mamza, M. Ford, T. Morris, A. Banerjee, K. Khunti


Incidence of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and oral anticoagulant prescribing in England, 2009 to 2019: A cohort study


Authors: A. Ajabnoor, S. Zghebi, R. Parisi, D. Ashcroft, M. Rutter, T. Doran, M. Carr, M. Mamas, E. Kontopantelis


Comparison of risk of serious cardiovascular events after haemorrhagic versus ischaemic stroke: a population-based study


Authors: R. Akyea, G. Georgiopoulos, B. Iyen, J. Kai, N. Qureshi, G. Ntaios


Hip Fracture Risk After Treatment with Tramadol or Codeine: An Observational Study


Authors: E. Voss, S. Ali, A. Singh, P. Rijnbeek, M. Schuemie, D. Fife


Morbidities among older workers and work exit: the HEAF cohort


Authors: K. Walker-Bone, S. D'Angelo, C. Linaker, M. Stevens, G. Ntani, C. Cooper, H. Syddall


Associations between frailty trajectories and cardiovascular, renal, and mortality outcomes in chronic kidney disease


Authors: T. Wilkinson, J. Miksza, F. Zaccardi, C. Lawson, A. Nixon, H. Young, K. Khunti, A. Smith


Developing and internally validating a prognostic model (P Risk) to improve the prediction of psychosis in a primary care population using electronic health records: The MAPPED study


Authors: S. Sullivan, D. Kounali, R. Morris, D. Kessler, W. Hamilton, G. Lewis, P. Lilford, I. Nazareth


Influenza vaccination reduced myocardial infarctions in UK older adults: a prior event rate ratio study


Authors: A. Streeter, L. Rodgers, F. Hamilton, J. Masoli, A. Ble, W. Hamilton, W. Henley


Symptoms and risk factors for long COVID in non-hospitalized adults


Authors: A. Subramanian, K. Nirantharakumar, S. Hughes, P. Myles, T. Williams, K. Gokhale, T. Taverner, J. Chandan, K. Brown, N. Simms-Williams, A. Shah, M. Singh, F. Kidy, K. Okoth, R. Hotham, N. Bashir, N. Cockburn, S. Lee, G. Turner, G. Gkoutos, O. Aiyegbusi, C. McMullan, A. Denniston, E. Sapey, J. Lord, D. Wraith, E. Leggett, C. Iles, T. Marshall, M. Price, S. Marwaha, E. Davies, L. Jackson, K. Matthews, J. Camaradou, M. Calvert, S. Haroon


"Use of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, changes in body mass index and risk of fracture: a population-based cohort study"


Authors: J. van Dalem, Cc Werkman, J. van den Bergh, B. Rossi, R. Viggers, R. Eastell, A. Burden, D. C, O. Klungel, Cgj Brouwers, Hm Driessen


Incremental value of risk factor variability for cardiovascular risk prediction in individuals with type 2 diabetes: results from UK primary care electronic health records


Authors: Z. Xu, M. Arnold, L. Sun, D. Stevens, R. Chung, S. Ip, J. Barrett, S. Kaptoge, L. Pennells, E. Di Angelantonio, A. Wood


Bilirubin levels and kidney function decline: An analysis of clinical trial and real world data


Authors: Y. Aoki, C. Cabrera, M. Ouwens, K. Bamberg, J. Nyström, I. Raz, B. Scirica, B. Hamrén, P. Greasley, D. Rekić


Incretin-Based Drugs and the Risk of Acute Liver Injury Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes


Authors: R. Pradhan, H. Yin, O. H. Y. Yu, L. Azoulay


Inflammatory marker testing in primary care in the year before Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis: a UK population-based case-control study in patients aged ≤50 years


Authors: M. Rafiq, G. Abel, C. Renzi, G. Lyratzopoulos


The Association of Long-Acting Insulin Analogue Use Versus Neutral Protamine Hagedorn Insulin Use With Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events Among Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study


Authors: V. Brunetti, O. H. Y. Yu, R. Platt, K. Filion


Incidence, morbidity, mortality and disparities in dementia: A population linked electronic health records study of 4.3 million individuals


Authors: S. Chung, R. Providencia, R. Sofat, M. Pujades-Rodriguez, A. Torralbo, G. Fatemifar, N. Fitzpatrick, J. Taylor, K. Li, C. Dale, M. Rossor, D. Acosta-Mena, J. Whittaker, S. Denaxas