Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 3,000 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography listed below is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 15 March 2023).

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: CPRD bibliography PDF March 2023 (PDF, 4.2MB, 286 pages) 

Download: CPRD bibliography .BIB March 2023 (BIB, 1.3MB, 1 page)

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website

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Year Sort ascending Title

Glucocorticoids and Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in Asthma Patients Aged 20-59 Years in the United Kingdom's CPRD 1995-2015


Authors: O. Ayodele, H. Cabral, D. McManus, S. Jick


Treatment Transitions in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Retrospective Analyses of US and UK Healthcare Databases


Authors: C. Bloom, J. Montonen, O. Jöns, E. Garry, S. Bhatt


The importance of blood pressure thresholds versus predicted cardiovascular risk on subsequent rates of cardiovascular disease: a cohort study in English primary care


Authors: E. Herrett, H. Strongman, S. Gadd, L. Tomlinson, D. Nitsch, K. Bhaskaran, E. Williamson, T. Van Staa, R. Sofat, A. Timmis, S. Wells, L. Smeeth, R. Jackson


Transparency of high-dimensional propensity score analyses: guidance for diagnostics and reporting


Authors: J. Tazare, R. Wyss, J. Franklin, L. Smeeth, S. Evans, S. Wang, S. Schneeweiss, I. Douglas, J. Gagne, E. Williamson


Prevalence and Patient Outcomes of Adult Primary Hypercholesterolemia and Dyslipidemia in the UK: Longitudinal Retrospective Study Using a Primary Care Dataset from 2009 to 2019


Authors: A. Bilitou, J. Were, A. Farrer, A. Rabe, S. W. Y. Ming, I. Haq, K. Dunton


Discontinuation of Inhaled Corticosteroids from Triple Therapy in COPD: Effects on Major Outcomes in Real World Clinical Practice


Authors: S. Suissa, S. Dell'Aniello, P. Ernst


The sexual and reproductive health of women with mental illness: a primary care registry study


Authors: H. Hope, M. Pierce, E. Johnstone, J. Myers, K. Abel


Clustering of comorbidities and associated outcomes in people with osteoarthritis - A UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink study


Authors: S. Swain, C. Coupland, V. Strauss, C. Mallen, C. Kuo, A. Sarmanova, S. Bierma-Zeinstra, M. Englund, D. Prieto-Alhambra, M. Doherty, W. Zhang


Blood eosinophils to guide inhaled maintenance therapy in a primary care COPD population


Authors: H. Ashdown, M. Smith, E. McFadden, I. Pavord, C. Butler, M. Bafadhel


Longitudinal evaluation of treatment patterns, risk factors and outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease treated with lipid-lowering therapy in the UK


Authors: M. Danese, E. Sidelnikov, G. Villa, D. Catterick, M. Iqbal, M. Gleeson, D. Lubeck, J. Patel


Has the gout epidemic peaked in the UK? A nationwide cohort study using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, from 1997 to across the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021


Authors: A. Abhishek, L. Tata, M. Mamas, A. Avery


Epidemiology of pre-existing multimorbidity in pregnant women in the UK in 2018: a population-based cross-sectional study


Authors: S. Lee, A. Azcoaga-Lorenzo, U. Agrawal, J. Kennedy, A. Fagbamigbe, H. Hope, A. Subramanian, A. Anand, B. Taylor, C. Nelson-Piercy, C. Damase-Michel, C. Yau, F. Crowe, G. Santorelli, K. Eastwood, Z. Vowles, M. Loane, N. Moss, P. Brocklehurst, R. Plachcinski, S. Thangaratinam, M. Black, D. O'Reilly, K. Abel, S. Brophy, K. Nirantharakumar, C. McCowan


Effectiveness of bisoprolol versus other β-blockers and other antihypertensive classes: a cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: C. Foch, A. Allignol, T. Hohenberger, E. Boutmy, S. Schaefer, U. Hostalek


Continuity of GP care for patients with dementia: impact on prescribing and the health of patients


Authors: J. Delgado, P. Evans, D. Gray, K. Sidaway-Lee, L. Allan, L. Clare, C. Ballard, J. Masoli, J. Valderas, D. Melzer


The feasibility of pragmatic influenza vaccine randomized controlled real-world trials in Denmark and England


Authors: J. Nealon, D. Modin, R. Ghosh, D. Rudin, G. Gislason, H. Booth, J. Jensen, R. Williams, H. Shepherd, E. Yelland, H. Bricout, S. Chaves, T. Biering-Sørensen


Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists and Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors and Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes


Authors: R. Pradhan, H. Yin, O. Yu, L. Azoulay


Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists and Risk of Anaphylactic Reaction Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Multisite Population-Based Cohort Study


Authors: R. Pradhan, E. Patorno, H. Tesfaye, S. Schneeweiss, H. Yin, J. Franklin, A. Pawar, C. Santella, O. H. Y. Yu, C. Renoux, L. Azoulay


Estimation of recurrent atherosclerotic cardiovascular event risk in patients with established cardiovascular disease: the updated SMART2 algorithm


Authors: S. Hageman, A. McKay, P. Ueda, L. Gunn, T. Jernberg, E. Hagström, D. Bhatt, P. Steg, K. Läll, R. Mägi, Nordbø Gynnild, H. Ellekjær, I. Saltvedt, J. Tuñón, I. Mahíllo, Á Aceña, K. Kaminski, M. Chlabicz, E. Sawicka, T. Tillman, J. McEvoy, E. Di Angelantonio, I. Graham, D. De Bacquer, K. Ray, J. Dorresteijn, F. Visseren


Comparative risk of acute myocardial infarction for anti-osteoporosis drugs in primary care: a meta-analysis of propensity-matched cohort findings from the UK Clinical Practice Research Database and the Catalan SIDIAP Database


Authors: S. Khalid, S. Calderon-Larranaga, A. Sami, S. Hawley, A. Judge, N. Arden, T. van Staa, C. Cooper, B. Abrahamsen, M. Javaid, D. Prieto-Alhambra


Consultation rates in people with type 2 diabetes with and without vascular complications: a retrospective analysis of 141,328 adults in England


Authors: S. Abner, C. Gillies, S. Shabnam, F. Zaccardi, S. Seidu, M. Davies, T. Adeyemi, K. Khunti, D. Webb


Antipsychotic treatment patterns in Alzheimer's disease patients with agitation: a cohort study using the UK clinical practice research datalink


Authors: C. Tran, M. Bøg, S. Collings, M. Johnson, N. Qizilbash, S. Lind, R. Baker, K. Jørgensen


Observational retrospective study calculating health service costs of patients receiving surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis in England, using linked patient-level primary and secondary care electronic data


Authors: C. Clarke, E. Williamson, S. Denaxas, J. Carpenter, M. Thomas, H. Blackshaw, A. Schilder, C. Philpott, C. Hopkins, S. Morris


Reduction of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality versus Risk of New Onset Diabetes with Statin Use in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis


Authors: G. Ozen, S. Dell'Aniello, S. Pedro, K. Michaud, S. Suissa


Surgical treatment, complications, reoperations, and healthcare costs among patients with clavicle fracture in England


Authors: S. Wolf, A. Chitnis, A. Manoranjith, M. Vanderkarr, J. Plaza, L. Gador, C. Holy, C. Sparks, S. Lambert


The risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in people prescribed mirtazapine: an active comparator cohort study using electronic health records


Authors: R. Joseph, R. Jack, R. Morriss, R. Knaggs, D. Butler, C. Hollis, J. Hippisley-Cox, C. Coupland


Primary care clinical management following self-harm during the first wave of COVID-19 in the UK: population-based cohort study


Authors: S. Steeg, M. Carr, L. Trefan, D. Ashcroft, N. Kapur, E. Nielsen, B. McMillan, R. Webb


No evidence that herpes zoster is associated with increased risk of dementia diagnosis


Authors: C. Warren-Gash, E. Williamson, S. Shiekh, J. Borjas-Howard, N. Pearce, J. Breuer, L. Smeeth


Opioid use prior to total knee replacement: comparative analysis of trends in England and Sweden


Authors: D. Yu, C. Hellberg, T. Appleyard, A. Dell'Isola, G. Thomas, A. Turkiewicz, M. Englund, G. Peat


The association between conception history and subsequent postpartum depression and/or anxiety: Evidence from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink 1991-2013


Authors: F. Tianyi, Y. Li, F. Alderdice, M. Quigley, J. Kurinczuk, C. Bankhead, C. Carson


Use of lifestyle interventions in primary care for individuals with newly diagnosed hypertension, hyperlipidaemia or obesity: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: J. Lemp, M. Nuthanapati, T. Bärnighausen, S. Vollmer, P. Geldsetzer, A. Jani


Frequency and Severity of Exacerbations of COPD Associated with Future Risk of Exacerbations and Mortality: A UK Routine Health Care Data Study


Authors: H. Whittaker, A. Rubino, H. Mullerova, T. Morris, P. Varghese, Y. Xu, E. de Nigris, J. Quint


Statin use is associated with lower risk of dementia in stroke patients: a community-based cohort study with inverse probability weighted marginal structural model analysis


Authors: Z. Yang, S. Toh, X. Li, D. Edwards, C. Brayne, J. Mant


Trends in the Annual Consultation Incidence and Prevalence of Low Back Pain and Osteoarthritis in England from 2000 to 2019: Comparative Estimates from Two Clinical Practice Databases


Authors: D. Yu, M. Missen, K. Jordan, J. Edwards, J. Bailey, R. Wilkie, J. Fitzpatrick, N. Ali, P. Niblett, G. Peat


Long-Term patterns of cancer incidence among patients with and without type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom


Authors: R. Pradhan, O. Yu, R. Platt, L. Azoulay


Investigating the optimal handling of uncertain pregnancy episodes in the CPRD GOLD Pregnancy Register: a methodological study using UK primary care data


Authors: J. Campbell, K. Bhaskaran, S. Thomas, R. Williams, H. McDonald, C. Minassian


Real-world weight change, adherence, and discontinuation among patients with type 2 diabetes initiating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in the UK


Authors: T. Weiss, L. Yang, R. Carr, S. Pal, B. Sawhney, R. Boggs, S. Rajpathak, K. Iglay


Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular and Heart Failure Events With SGLT2 Inhibitors, GLP-1 Receptor Agonists, and Their Combination in Type 2 Diabetes


Authors: A. Wright, M. Carr, E. Kontopantelis, L. Leelarathna, H. Thabit, R. Emsley, I. Buchan, M. Mamas, T. van Staa, N. Sattar, D. Ashcroft, M. Rutter


Associations of Cardiovascular and Non-Cardiovascular Comorbidities with Dementia Risk in Patients with Diabetes: Results from a Large UK Cohort Study


Authors: B. Zheng, B. Su, C. Udeh-Momoh, G. Price, I. Tzoulaki, E. Vamos, A. Majeed, E. Riboli, S. Ahmadi-Abhari, L. Middleton


Asthma phenotyping in primary care: applying the International Severe Asthma Registry eosinophil phenotype algorithm across all asthma severities


Authors: M. Kerkhof, T. Tran, R. Allehebi, G. Canonica, L. Heaney, M. Hew, Perez de Llano, M. Wechsler, L. Bulathsinhala, V. Carter, I. Chaudhry, N. Eleangovan, R. Murray, C. Price, D. Price


Comparing initial LABA-ICS inhalers in COPD: Real-world effectiveness and safety


Authors: S. Suissa, S. Dell'Aniello, P. Ernst


Comparison of Pregnancy Outcomes of Patients Treated With Ondansetron vs Alternative Antiemetic Medications in a Multinational, Population-Based Cohort


Authors: C. Dormuth, B. Winquist, A. Fisher, F. Wu, P. Reynier, S. Suissa, M. Dahl, Z. Ma, X. Lu, J. Zhang, C. Raymond, K. Filion, R. Platt, C. Moriello, J. Paterson


The increasing incidence and prevalence of hypereosinophilic syndrome in the United Kingdom


Authors: G. Requena, J. Logie, D. Gibbons, J. Steinfeld, M. Van Dyke


Incretin-Based Drugs and Risk of Intestinal Obstruction Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes


Authors: J. Faillie, H. Yin, O. H. Y. Yu, A. Herrero, R. Altwegg, C. Renoux, L. Azoulay


Indirect acute effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health in the UK: a population-based study


Authors: K. Mansfield, R. Mathur, J. Tazare, A. Henderson, A. Mulick, H. Carreira, A. Matthews, P. Bidulka, A. Gayle, H. Forbes, S. Cook, A. Wong, H. Strongman, K. Wing, C. Warren-Gash, S. Cadogan, L. Smeeth, J. Hayes, J. Quint, M. McKee, S. Langan


Inequalities in incident and prevalent multimorbidity in England, 2004\textendash19: a population-based, descriptive study


Authors: A. Head, K. Fleming, C. Kypridemos, P. Schofield, J. Pearson-Stuttard, M. O\textquoterightFlaherty


Weight change, cardio-metabolic risk factors and cardiovascular incidence in people with serious mental illness: protocol of a population-based cohort study in the UK from 1998 to 2020


Authors: C. Lee, F. Waite, M. Smith, M. Gao, C. Bankhead, P. Aveyard, C. Piernas


wEight chanGes, caRdio-mEtabolic risks and morTality in patients with hyperthyroidism (EGRET): a protocol for a CPRD-HES linked cohort study


Authors: B. Torlinska, J. Hazlehurst, K. Nirantharakumar, G. Thomas, J. Priestley, S. Finnikin, P. Saunders, K. Abrams, K. Boelaert


What is the incidence of methotrexate or leflunomide discontinuation related to cytopenia, liver enzyme elevation or kidney function decline?


Authors: G. Nakafero, M. Grainge, T. Card, C. Mallen, W. Zhang, M. Doherty, M. Taal, G. Aithal, A. Abhishek


Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome have an increased risk of major cardiovascular events: a population study


Authors: T. Berni, C. Morgan, D. Rees


Younger people with rheumatoid arthritis are at increased risk of fracture even before age 50 years: a population-based cohort study


Authors: J. Erwin, D. Enki, A. Woolf