Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,800 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 June 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 5MB, 229 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2809 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
E. Tafesse, Hurst, M., Hoskin, L., Badora, K., Sugrue, D., Qin, L., James, G., and McEwan, P., Risk factors associated with the incidence and recurrence of hyperkalaemia in patients with cardiorenal conditions, Int J Clin Pract, p. e13941, 2020.
A. P. McGovern, Hogg, M., Shields, B. M., Sattar, N. A., Holman, R. R., Pearson, E. R., Hattersley, A. T., Jones, A. G., and Dennis, J. M., Risk factors for genital infections in people initiating SGLT2 inhibitors and their impact on discontinuation, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 8, 2020.
C. A. Lawson, Zaccardi, F., Squire, I., Okhai, H., Davies, M., Huang, W., Mamas, M., Lam, C. S. P., Khunti, K., and Kadam, U. T., Risk Factors for Heart Failure: 20-Year Population-Based Trends by Sex, Socioeconomic Status, and Ethnicity, Circ Heart Fail, vol. 13, p. e006472, 2020.
D. A. Enoch, Murray-Thomas, T., Adomakoh, N., Dedman, D., Georgopali, A., Francis, N., and Karas, A., Risk of complications and mortality following recurrent and non-recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection: a retrospective, observational, database study in England, J Hosp Infect, 2020.
J. C. E. Lane, Weaver, J., Kostka, K., Duarte-Salles, T., Abrahao, M. T. F., Alghoul, H., Alser, O., Alshammari, T. M., Areia, C., Biedermann, P., Banda, J. M., Burn, E., Casajust, P., Fišter, K., Hardin, J., Hester, L., Hripcsak, G., Kaas-Hansen, B. S., Khosla, S., Kolovos, S., Lynch, K. E., Makadia, R., Mehta, P. P., Morales, D. R., Morgan-Stewart, H., Mosseveld, M., Newby, D., Nyberg, F., Ostropolets, A., R. Park, W., Prats-Uribe, A., Rao, G. A., Reich, C., Rijnbeek, P., Sena, A. G., Shoaibi, A., Spotnitz, M., Vignesh, S., Suchard, M. A., Vizcaya, D., Wen, H., de Wilde, M., Xie, J., You, S. C., Zhang, L., Lovestone, S., Ryan, P., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Risk of depression, suicide and psychosis with hydroxychloroquine treatment for rheumatoid arthritis: a multinational network cohort study, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
T. Burkard, Rauch, M., Spoendlin, J., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Risk of hand osteoarthritis in new users of hormone replacement therapy: A nested case-control analysis, Maturitas, vol. 132, pp. 17-23, 2020.
H. Forbes, Douglas, I., Finn, A., Breuer, J., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Packer, S., Langan, S. M., Mansfield, K. E., Marlow, R., Whitaker, H., and Warren-Gash, C., Risk of herpes zoster after exposure to varicella to explore the exogenous boosting hypothesis: self controlled case series study using UK electronic healthcare data, Bmj, vol. 368, p. l6987, 2020.
Z. Z. N. Yiu, Parisi, R., Lunt, M., Warren, R. B., Griffiths, C. E. M., Langan, S. M., and Ashcroft, D. M., Risk of Hospitalisation and Death due to Infection in People with Psoriasis: a Population-based Cohort Study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
J. C. E. Lane, Weaver, J., Kostka, K., Duarte-Salles, T., Abrahao, M. T. F., Alghoul, H., Alser, O., Alshammari, T. M., Biedermann, P., Banda, J. M., Burn, E., Casajust, P., Conover, M. M., Culhane, A. C., Davydov, A., DuVall, S. L., Dymshyts, D., Fernandez-Bertolin, S., Fišter, K., Hardin, J., Hester, L., Hripcsak, G., Kaas-Hansen, B. S., Kent, S., Khosla, S., Kolovos, S., Lambert, C. G., van der Lei, J., Lynch, K. E., Makadia, R., Margulis, A. V., Matheny, M. E., Mehta, P., Morales, D. R., Morgan-Stewart, H., Mosseveld, M., Newby, D., Nyberg, F., Ostropolets, A., Park, R. W., Prats-Uribe, A., Rao, G. A., Reich, C., Reps, J., Rijnbeek, P., Sathappan, S. M. K., Schuemie, M., Seager, S., Sena, A. G., Shoaibi, A., Spotnitz, M., Suchard, M. A., Torre, C. O., Vizcaya, D., Wen, H., de Wilde, M., Xie, J., You, S. C., Zhang, L., Zhuk, O., Ryan, P., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Risk of hydroxychloroquine alone and in combination with azithromycin in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a multinational, retrospective study, Lancet Rheumatol, vol. 2, pp. e698-e711, 2020.
Y. Zhang, Souverein, P. C., Gardarsdottir, H., van den Ham, H. A., van der Zee, A. H. Maitlan, and de Boer, A., Risk of major bleeding among users of direct oral anticoagulants combined with interacting drugs: A population-based nested case-control study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
K. H. Thomas, Davies, N. M., Taylor, A. E., Taylor, G. M. J., Gunnell, D., Martin, R. M., and Douglas, I., Risk of neuropsychiatric and cardiovascular adverse events following treatment with varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink: a case-crossover study, Addiction, 2020.
I. J. A. de Bruin, Wyers, C. E., Souverein, P. C., van Staa, T. P., Geusens, P., van den Bergh, J. P. W., de Vries, F., and Driessen, J. H. M., The risk of new fragility fractures in patients with chronic kidney disease and hip fracture-a population-based cohort study in the UK, Osteoporos Int, 2020.
R. Charlton, Green, A., Shaddick, G., Snowball, J., Nightingale, A., Tillett, W., Smith, C., and McHugh, N., Risk of osteoarthritis in an incident cohort of people with psoriatic arthritis: a population-based cohort study, J Rheumatol, 2020.
C. V. Chalitsios, Shaw, D. E., and McKeever, T. M., Risk of osteoporosis and fragility fractures in asthma due to oral and inhaled corticosteroids: two population-based nested case-control studies, Thorax, 2020.
T. A. Althunian, de Boer, A., Groenwold, R. H. H., Rengerink, K. O., Souverein, P. C., and Klungel, O. H., Rivaroxaban was found to be noninferior to warfarin in routine clinical care: A retrospective noninferiority cohort replication study, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
D. J. Grint, McDonald, H. I., Walker, J. L., Amirthalingam, G., Andrews, N., and Thomas, S., Safety of inadvertent administration of live zoster vaccine to immunosuppressed individuals in a UK-based observational cohort analysis, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e034886, 2020.
D. E. Robinson, Ali, M. S., Pallares, N., Tebe, C., Elhussein, L., Abrahamsen, B., Arden, N. K., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Caskey, F. J., Cooper, C., Dedman, D., Delmestri, A., Judge, A., Perez-Saez, M. J., Pascual, J., Nogues, X., Diez-Perez, A., Strauss, V. Y., Javaid, M. K., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Safety of oral bisphosphonates in moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease: a bi-national cohort analysis, J Bone Miner Res, 2020.
M. Peppa, Thomas, S. L., Minassian, C., Walker, J. L., McDonald, H. I., Andrews, N. J., Kempley, S. T., and Mangtani, P., Seasonal influenza vaccination during pregnancy and the risk of major congenital malformations in live-born infants: A 2010-2016 historical cohort study, Clin Infect Dis, 2020.
E. Rezel-Potts and Gulliford, M. C., Sepsis recording in primary care electronic health records, linked hospital episodes and mortality records: Population-based cohort study in England, PLoS One, vol. 15, p. e0244764, 2020.
M. C. Gulliford, Sun, X., Charlton, J., Winter, J. R., Bunce, C., Boiko, O., Fox, R., Little, P., Moore, M., Hay, A. D., and Ashworth, M., Serious bacterial infections and antibiotic prescribing in primary care: cohort study using electronic health records in the UK, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e036975, 2020.
F. Zaccardi, Ling, S., Lawson, C., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Severe hypoglycaemia and absolute risk of cause-specific mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a UK primary care observational study, Diabetologia, 2020.
P. C. Prieto, Ibrahim, F., Campbell, R., Chinoy, H., Galloway, J., and Gordon, P., Similar risk of cardiovascular events in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy and rheumatoid arthritis in the first 5 years after diagnosis, Clin Rheumatol, 2020.
A. Sarmanova, Doherty, M., Kuo, C., Wei, J., Abhishek, A., Mallen, C., Zeng, C., Wang, Y., Lei, G., and Zhang, W., Statin use and risk of joint replacement due to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a propensity-score matched longitudinal cohort study, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
A. K. Sorial, Anjum, S. A., Cook, M. J., Board, T. N., and O'Neill, T. W., Statins, bone biology and revision arthroplasty: review of clinical and experimental evidence, Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis, vol. 12, p. 1759720x20966229, 2020.
J. Blackwell, Saxena, S., Jayasooriya, N., Petersen, I., Hotopf, M., Creese, H., Bottle, A., and Pollok, R. C. G., Stoma formation in Crohn's Disease and the likelihood of antidepressant use: a population-based cohort study, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2020.
P. Bidulka, Fu, E. L., Leyrat, C., Kalogirou, F., McAllister, K. S. L., Kingdon, E. J., Mansfield, K. E., Iwagami, M., Smeeth, L., Clase, C. M., Bhaskaran, K., van Diepen, M., Carrero, J. J., Nitsch, D., and Tomlinson, L. A., Stopping renin-angiotensin system blockers after acute kidney injury and risk of adverse outcomes: parallel population-based cohort studies in English and Swedish routine care, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 195, 2020.
J. Zhu and Gallego, B., Targeted estimation of heterogeneous treatment effect in observational survival analysis, J Biomed Inform, vol. 107, p. 103474, 2020.
S. C. Mendonca, Saunders, C. L., Lund, J., Mant, J., and Edwards, D., Temporal trends in incidence of atrial fibrillation in primary care records: a population-based cohort study, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e042518, 2020.
E. L. Axson, Sundaram, V., Bloom, C. I., Bottle, A., Cowie, M. R., and Quint, J. K., Temporal Trends in the Incidence of Heart Failure among Patients with COPD and Its Association with Mortality, Ann Am Thorac Soc, 2020.
M. Jani, B. Yimer, B., Sheppard, T., Lunt, M., and Dixon, W. G., Time trends and prescribing patterns of opioid drugs in UK primary care patients with non-cancer pain: A retrospective cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003270, 2020.
P. Planell-Morell, Bajekal, M., Denaxas, S., Raine, R., and Alexander, D. C., Trajectories of Disease Accumulation Using Electronic Health Records, Stud Health Technol Inform, vol. 270, pp. 469-473, 2020.
D. C. Gibbons, Aggarwal, B., Fairburn-Beech, J., Hinds, D., Fletcher, M., Bosnic-Anticevich, S., and Price, D., Treatment patterns among non-active users of maintenance asthma medication in the United Kingdom: a retrospective cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, J Asthma, pp. 1-12, 2020.
D. Abrahami, McDonald, E. G., Schnitzer, M., and Azoulay, L., Trends in acid suppressant drug prescriptions in primary care in the UK: a population-based cross-sectional study, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e041529, 2020.
J. Ruzangi, Blair, M., Cecil, E., Greenfield, G., Bottle, A., Hargreaves, D. S., and Saxena, S., Trends in healthcare use in children aged less than 15 years: a population-based cohort study in England from 2007 to 2017, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e033761, 2020.
S. Swain, Sarmanova, A., Mallen, C., Kuo, C. F., Coupland, C., Doherty, M., and Zhang, W., Trends in incidence and prevalence of osteoarthritis in the United Kingdom: findings from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2020.
H. T. Ayele, Reynier, P., Azoulay, L., Platt, R. W., Cabaussel, J., Benayoun, S., and Filion, K. B., Trends in the pharmacological treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in the UK from 1998 to 2016: a population-based cohort study, World J Urol, 2020.
S. Price, Spencer, A., Zhang, X., Ball, S., Lyratzopoulos, G., Mujica-Mota, R., Stapley, S., Ukoumunne, O. C., and Hamilton, W., Trends in time to cancer diagnosis around the period of changing national guidance on referral of symptomatic patients: A serial cross-sectional study using UK electronic healthcare records from 2006-17, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 69, p. 101805, 2020.
A. Hart, Ng, S. C., Watkins, J., Paridaens, K., Edwards, J. O., Fullarton, J. R., Sonderegger, Y. L. Y., Ghatnekar, O., and Ghosh, S., The use of 5-aminosalicylates in Crohn's disease: a retrospective study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Ann Gastroenterol, vol. 33, pp. 500-507, 2020.
R. Denholm, van der Werf, E. T., and Hay, A. D., Use of antibiotics and asthma medication for acute lower respiratory tract infections in people with and without asthma: retrospective cohort study, Respir Res, vol. 21, p. 4, 2020.
Y. Vinogradova, Coupland, C., and Hippisley-Cox, J., Use of hormone replacement therapy and risk of breast cancer: nested case-control studies using the QResearch and CPRD databases, Bmj, vol. 371, p. m3873, 2020.
J. Rouette, Yin, H., Pottegard, A., Nirantharakumar, K., and Azoulay, L., Use of Hydrochlorothiazide and Risk of Melanoma and Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer, Drug Saf, 2020.
N. C. C. Werkman, Nielen, J. T. H., van den Bergh, J. P. W., Ejskjaer, N., Røikjer, J., Schaper, N. C., Rossi, B., Klungel, O., Vestergaard, P., de Vries, F., and Driessen, J. H. M., Use of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter-2-Inhibitors (SGLT2-Is) and Risk of Lower Limb Amputation, Curr Drug Saf, 2020.
A. Arana, Margulis, A. V., Varas-Lorenzo, C., Bui, C. L., Gilsenan, A., McQuay, L. J., Reynolds, M., Rebordosa, C., Franks, B., de Vogel, S., Appenteng, K., and Perez-Gutthann, S., Validation of cardiovascular outcomes and risk factors in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink in the United Kingdom, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
M. S. M. Persson, Harman, K. E., Vinogradova, Y., Langan, S. M., Hippisley-Cox, J., Thomas, K. S., and Gran, S., Validation study of bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris recording in routinely collected electronic primary healthcare records in England, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e035934, 2020.
N. M. Davies, Taylor, A. E., Taylor, G. M., Itani, T., Jones, T., Martin, R. M., Munafo, M. R., Windmeijer, F., and Thomas, K. H., Varenicline versus nicotine replacement therapy for long-term smoking cessation: an observational study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Health Technol Assess, vol. 24, pp. 1-46, 2020.
M. Giustozzi, Curcio, A., Weijs, B., Field, T. S., Sudikas, S., Katholing, A., Wallenhorst, C., Weitz, J. I., Martinez, C., and Cohen, A. T., Variation in the Association between Antineoplastic Therapies and Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Active Cancer, Thromb Haemost, vol. 120, pp. 847-856, 2020.
C. Santella, Yin, H., Hicks, B. M., Yu, O. H. Y., Bouganim, N., and Azoulay, L., Weight-lowering effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and detection of breast cancer among obese women with diabetes, Epidemiology, 2020.
H. Strongman, Williams, R., and Bhaskaran, K., What are the implications of using individual and combined sources of routinely collected data to identify and characterise incident site-specific cancers? a concordance and validation study using linked English electronic health records data, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e037719, 2020.
J. S. Minhas, Coles, B., Mistri, A. K., Eveson, D. J., Hussain, S. T., Potter, J. F., Khunti, K., and Robinson, T. G., What is the optimal blood pressure level for patients with atrial fibrillation treated with direct oral anticoagulants?, J Hypertens, 2020.
W. D. Strain, Tsang, C., Hurst, M., McEwan, P., Unadkat, M., Meadowcroft, S., Shardlow, R., and Evans, M., What Next After Metformin in Type 2 Diabetes? Selecting the Right Drug for the Right Patient, Diabetes Ther, vol. 11, pp. 1381-1395, 2020.
[Page last reviewed 4 June 2021]