Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 5 June 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 205 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2528 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
Y. Li, Molter, A., White, A., Welfare, W., Palin, V., Belmonte, M., Ashcroft, D. M., Sperrin, M., and van Staa, T. P., Relationship between prescribing of antibiotics and other medicines in primary care: a cross-sectional study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 69, pp. e42-e51, 2019.
S. V. Ramagopalan, Stamp, E., Sammon, C. J., Besford, M., Carroll, R., Mehmud, F., and Alikhan, R., Renal function and oral anticoagulant treatment of incident non-valvular atrial fibrillation: a retrospective study, Future Cardiol, 2019.
S. Weir, Kuo, T. C., Samnaliev, M., Tierney, T. S., Manca, A., Taylor, R. S., Bruce, J., Eldabe, S., and Cumming, D., Reoperation following lumbar spinal surgery: costs and outcomes in a UK population cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), Eur Spine J, 2019.
T. Newlove-Delgado, Ford, T. J., Hamilton, W., Janssens, A., Stein, K., and Ukoumunne, O. C., Resumption of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder medication in early adulthood: findings from a UK primary care prescribing study, Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 2019.
A. Uijl, Koudstaal, S., Direk, K., Denaxas, S., Groenwold, R. H. H., Banerjee, A., Hoes, A. W., Hemingway, H., and Asselbergs, F. W., Risk factors for incident heart failure in age- and sex-specific strata: a population-based cohort using linked electronic health records, Eur J Heart Fail, 2019.
J. Bedson, Chen, Y., Ashworth, J., Hayward, R. A., Dunn, K. M., and Jordan, K. P., Risk of adverse events in patients prescribed long-term opioids: A cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Eur J Pain, 2019.
S. E. Bromley, Matthews, A., Smeeth, L., Stanway, S., and Bhaskaran, K., Risk of dementia among postmenopausal breast cancer survivors treated with aromatase inhibitors versus tamoxifen: a cohort study using primary care data from the UK, J Cancer Surviv, vol. 13, pp. 632-640, 2019.
J. B. Wetmore, Yan, H., Horne, L., Peng, Y., and Gilbertson, D. T., Risk of hyperkalemia from renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and factors associated with treatment discontinuities in a real-world population, Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2019.
E. Williamson, Denaxas, S., Morris, S., Clarke, C. S., Thomas, M., Evans, H., Direk, K., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Little, P., Lund, V., Blackshaw, H., Schilder, A., Philpott, C., Hopkins, C., and Carpenter, J., Risk of mortality and cardiovascular events following macrolide prescription in chronic rhinosinusitis patients: a cohort study using linked primary care electronic health records, Rhinology, 2019.
R. Alikhan, Lefevre, C., Menown, I., Lister, S., Bird, A., You, M., Evans, D., and Sammon, C., Risk of Recurrent Bleeding Events in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Treated with Vitamin K Antagonists: A Clinical Practice Research Datalink Study, TH Open, vol. 3, pp. e316-e324, 2019.
A. Adiamah, Ban, L., West, J., and Humes, D. J., The risk of venous thromboembolism after surgery for esophagogastric malignancy and the impact of chemotherapy: a population-based cohort study, Dis Esophagus, 2019.
F. Zaccardi, Husemoen, L. L. Nystrup, Thorsted, B. L., Webb, D. R., Paul, S. K., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Selectivity of beta-blockers, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in people with hypoglycaemia: An observational study, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, vol. 29, pp. 481-488, 2019.
C. Linde, Qin, L., Bakhai, A., Furuland, H., Evans, M., Ayoubkhani, D., Palaka, E., Bennett, H., and McEwan, P., Serum potassium and clinical outcomes in heart failure patients: results of risk calculations in 21 334 patients in the UK, ESC Heart Fail, 2019.
M. Rafiq, Hayward, A., Warren-Gash, C., Denaxas, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Lyratzopoulos, G., and Thomas, S., Socioeconomic deprivation and regional variation in Hodgkin's lymphoma incidence in the UK: a population-based cohort study of 10 million individuals, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e029228, 2019.
M. Weldegiorgis, Smith, M., Herrington, W. G., Bankhead, C., and Woodward, M., Socioeconomic disadvantage and the risk of advanced chronic kidney disease: results from a cohort study with 1.4 million participants, Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 2019.
M. S. Chan, van den Hout, A., Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Jones, M. M., Matthews, F. E., Jagger, C., Raine, R., and Bajekal, M., Socio-economic inequalities in life expectancy of older adults with and without multimorbidity: a record linkage study of 1.1 million people in England, Int J Epidemiol, 2019.
G. J. Lefeber, Koek, H. L., Souverein, P. C., Bouvy, M. L., de Boer, A., and Knol, W., Statins After Myocardial Infarction in the Oldest: A Cohort Study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Database, J Am Geriatr Soc, 2019.
N. Frey, Bodmer, M., Bircher, A., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Association with Commonly Prescribed Drugs in Outpatient Care Other than Anti-Epileptic Drugs and Antibiotics: A Population-Based Case-Control Study, Drug Saf, vol. 42, pp. 55-66, 2019.
J. Fortuny, Gilsenan, A., Cainzos-Achirica, M., Cantero, O. F., Flynn, R. W. V., Garcia-Rodriguez, L., Kollhorst, B., Karlsson, P., Linner, L., MacDonald, T. M., Plana, E., Ruigomez, A., Schink, T., Ziemiecki, R., and Andrews, E. B., Study Design and Cohort Comparability in a Study of Major Cardiovascular Events in New Users of Prucalopride Versus Polyethylene Glycol 3350, Drug Saf, 2019.
N. A. Stohler, Reinau, D., Jick, S. S., Bodmer, D., and Meier, C. R., A study on the epidemiology of tinnitus in the United Kingdom, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 11, pp. 855-871, 2019.
R. K. Akyea, Kai, J., Qureshi, N., Iyen, B., and Weng, S. F., Sub-optimal cholesterol response to initiation of statins and future risk of cardiovascular disease, Heart, 2019.
A. Banerjee, Allan, V., Denaxas, S., Shah, A., Kotecha, D., Lambiase, P. D., Jacob, J., Lund, L. H., and Hemingway, H., Subtypes of atrial fibrillation with concomitant valvular heart disease derived from electronic health records: phenotypes, population prevalence, trends and prognosis, Europace, 2019.
K. B. Filion, Douros, A., Azoulay, L., Yin, H., Yu, O. H., and Suissa, S., Sulfonylureas as initial treatment for type 2 diabetes and the risk of adverse cardiovascular events: A population-based cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2019.
N. Conrad, Judge, A., Canoy, D., Tran, J., Pinho-Gomes, A. C., Millett, E. R. C., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Cleland, J. G., McMurray, J. J. V., and Rahimi, K., Temporal Trends and Patterns in Mortality After Incident Heart Failure: A Longitudinal Analysis of 86000 Individuals, JAMA Cardiol, 2019.
D. Spanopoulos, Okhai, H., Zaccardi, F., Tebboth, A., Barrett, B., Busse, M., Webb, J., and Khunti, K., Temporal variation of renal function in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink cohort study, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2019.
C. Santella, Renoux, C., Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., and Azoulay, L., Testosterone Replacement Therapy and the Risk of Prostate Cancer in Men with Late-Onset Hypogonadism, Am J Epidemiol, 2019.
J. M. Dennis, Henley, W. E., McGovern, A. P., Farmer, A. J., Sattar, N., Holman, R. R., Pearson, E. R., Hattersley, A. T., Shields, B. M., and Jones, A. G., Time trends in prescribing of type 2 diabetes drugs, glycemic response and risk factors: a retrospective analysis of primary care data, 2010-2017, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2019.
C. J. Czoski Murray, Kingsbury, S. R., Arden, N. K., Hewison, J., Judge, A., Matu, J., O'Shea, J., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., Smith, L. K., Smith, C., Thomas, C. M., West, R. M., Wright, J. M., Conaghan, P. G., and Stone, M. H., Towards UK poSt Arthroplasty Follow-up rEcommendations (UK SAFE): protocol for an evaluation of the requirements for arthroplasty follow-up, and the production of consensus-based recommendations, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e031351, 2019.
J. L. Rees, Shah, A., Edwards, K., Sanchez-Santos, M. T., Robinson, D. E., Delmestri, A., Carr, A., Arden, N., Lamb, S. E., Rangan, A., Judge, A., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., Holt, T., Hopewell, S., Prieto-Alhambra, D., and Collins, G., Treatment of first-time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation: the UK TASH-D cohort study, Health Technol Assess, vol. 23, pp. 1-104, 2019.
D. Dedman, Coton, S. J., Ghosh, R. E., Meeraus, W., Crim, C., Harvey, C., Amelio, J., and Landis, S. H., Treatment Patterns of New Users of Fluticasone Furoate/Vilanterol in Asthma and COPD in UK Primary Care: Retrospective Cohort Study, Pulmonary Therapy, vol. 5, pp. 81-95, 2019.
G. Powell, Logan, J., Kiri, V., and Borghs, S., Trends in antiepileptic drug treatment and effectiveness in clinical practice in England from 2003 to 2016: a retrospective cohort study using electronic medical records, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e032551, 2019.
T. Appleyard, Ashworth, J., Bedson, J., Yu, D., and Peat, G., Trends in gabapentinoid prescribing in patients with osteoarthritis: a United Kingdom national cohort study in primary care, Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2019.
M. Gompels, Michael, S., Davies, C., Jones, T., Macleod, J., and May, M., Trends in HIV testing in the UK primary care setting: a 15-year retrospective cohort study from 2000 to 2015, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e027744, 2019.
B. Feakins, Oke, J., McFadden, E., Aronson, J., Lasserson, D., O'Callaghan, C., Taylor, C., Hill, N., Stevens, R., and Perera, R., Trends in kidney function testing in UK primary care since the introduction of the quality and outcomes framework: a retrospective cohort study using CPRD, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e028062, 2019.
C. J. Taylor, Ordonez-Mena, J. M., Roalfe, A. K., Lay-Flurrie, S., Jones, N. R., Marshall, T., and Hobbs, F. D. R., Trends in survival after a diagnosis of heart failure in the United Kingdom 2000-2017: population based cohort study, Bmj, vol. 364, p. l223, 2019.
C. Group on H. Cancer, Type and timing of menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis of the worldwide epidemiological evidence, Lancet, vol. 394, pp. 1159-1168, 2019.
S. Denaxas, Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Direk, K., Fitzpatrick, N. K., Fatemifar, G., Banerjee, A., Dobson, R. J. B., Howe, L. J., Kuan, V., Lumbers, R. T., Pasea, L., Patel, R. S., Shah, A. D., Hingorani, A. D., Sudlow, C., and Hemingway, H., UK phenomics platform for developing and validating electronic health record phenotypes: CALIBER, J Am Med Inform Assoc, 2019.
A. Pate, Emsley, R., Ashcroft, D. M., Brown, B., and Van Staa, T., The uncertainty with using risk prediction models for individual decision making: an exemplar cohort study examining the prediction of cardiovascular disease in English primary care, BMC Med, vol. 17, p. 134, 2019.
C. Rebordosa, Aguado, J., Plana, E., Thomas, S., Frances, A., Lei, A., Garcia-Gil, E., Nuevo, J., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Castellsague, J., Use of aclidinium did not increase the risk of death in a noninterventional cohort study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), United Kingdom, Respir Med, vol. 152, pp. 37-43, 2019.
Y. Vinogradova, Coupland, C., and Hippisley-Cox, J., Use of hormone replacement therapy and risk of venous thromboembolism: nested case-control studies using the QResearch and CPRD databases, Bmj, vol. 364, p. k4810, 2019.
R. Pradhan, Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., and Azoulay, L., The Use of Long-Acting Insulin Analogs and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Drug Saf, 2019.
J. Watson, Jones, H. E., Banks, J., Whiting, P., Salisbury, C., and Hamilton, W., Use of multiple inflammatory marker tests in primary care: using Clinical Practice Research Datalink to evaluate accuracy, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 69, pp. e462-e469, 2019.
A. Mitchell, Welsh, T. J., Watson, M. C., Snowball, J., and McGrogan, A., Use of oral anticoagulants in older people with atrial fibrillation in UK general practice: protocol for a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) database, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e032646, 2019.
A. Tran-Duy, Connell, N. J., Vanmolkot, F. H., Souverein, P. C., de Wit, N. J., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Hoes, A. W., de Vries, F., and de Boer, A., Use of proton pump inhibitors and risk of iron deficiency: a population-based case-control study, J Intern Med, vol. 285, pp. 205-214, 2019.
T. Itani, Martin, R., Rai, D., Jones, T., Taylor, G., Thomas, K., Munafo, M., Davies, N., and Taylor, A., Use of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy in people with and without general practitioner-recorded dementia: retrospective cohort study of routine electronic medical records, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e027569, 2019.
M. Ozawa, Brennan, P. M., Zienius, K., Kurian, K. M., Hollingworth, W., Weller, D., Grant, R., Hamilton, W., and Ben-Shlomo, Y., The usefulness of symptoms alone or combined for general practitioners in considering the diagnosis of a brain tumour: a case-control study using the clinical practice research database (CPRD) (2000-2014), BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e029686, 2019.
T. Burkard, Moser, M., Rauch, M., Jick, S. S., and Meier, C. R., Utilization pattern of hormone therapy in UK general practice between 1996 and 2015: a descriptive study, Menopause, 2019.
J. E. Amegadzie, Badejo, O., Gamble, J. M., Wright, M., Farrell, J., Jackson, B., Sultana, K., Hashmi, M., and Gao, Z., Validated methods to identify patients with asthma-COPD overlap in healthcare databases: a systematic review protocol, BMJ Open, vol. 9, p. e024306, 2019.
J. A. Critchley, Carey, I. M., Harris, T., DeWilde, S., and Cook, D. G., Variability in Glycated Hemoglobin and Risk of Poor Outcomes Among People With Type 2 Diabetes in a Large Primary Care Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, vol. 42, pp. 2237-2246, 2019.
A. A. Sultan, Muller, S., Whittle, R., Roddy, E., Mallen, C., and Clarson, L., Venous thromboembolism in patients with gout and the impact of hospital admission, disease duration and urate-lowering therapy, Cmaj, vol. 191, pp. E597-e603, 2019.
[Page last reviewed 5 June 2020]