Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,500 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 7 September 2020) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 3MB, 209 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2588 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
G. H. B. Greenhall, Mansfield, K. E., Nitsch, D., Iwagami, M., Leyrat, C., Johnston, R., Smeeth, L., and Tomlinson, L. A., The effect of initiation of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on haemoglobin: A national cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2020.
M. Carney, Quiroga, M., Mounce, L., Shephard, E., Hamilton, W., and Price, S., Effect of pre-existing conditions on bladder cancer stage at diagnosis: a cohort study using electronic primary care records in the UK, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
T. P. van Staa, Palin, V., Li, Y., Welfare, W., Felton, T. W., Dark, P., and Ashcroft, D. M., The effectiveness of frequent antibiotic use in reducing the risk of infection-related hospital admissions: results from two large population-based cohorts, BMC Med, vol. 18, p. 40, 2020.
G. Nakafero, Grainge, M. J., Myles, P. R., Mallen, C. D., Zhang, W., Doherty, M., Nguyen-Van-Tam, J. S., and Abhishek, A., Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine in autoimmune rheumatic diseases treated with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
T. Tran, Assayag, D., Ernst, P., and Suissa, S., Effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a population-based cohort study, Chest, 2020.
S. S. Zghebi, Steinke, D. T., Rutter, M. K., and Ashcroft, D. M., Eleven-year multimorbidity burden among 637 255 people with and without type 2 diabetes: a population-based study using primary care and linked hospitalisation data, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e033866, 2020.
Y. Ye, Jiang, B., Manne, S., Moses, P. L., Almansa, C., Bennett, D., Dolin, P., and Ford, A. C., Epidemiology and outcomes of gastroparesis, as documented in general practice records, in the United Kingdom, Gut, 2020.
A. Banerjee, Pasea, L., Harris, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Torralbo, A., Shallcross, L., Noursadeghi, M., Pillay, D., Sebire, N., Holmes, C., Pagel, C., Wong, W. K., Langenberg, C., Williams, B., Denaxas, S., and Hemingway, H., Estimating excess 1-year mortality associated with the COVID-19 pandemic according to underlying conditions and age: a population-based cohort study, Lancet, vol. 395, pp. 1715-1725, 2020.
M. D. Danese, Pemberton-Ross, P., Catterick, D., and Villa, G., Estimation of the increased risk associated with recurrent events or polyvascular atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the United Kingdom, Eur J Prev Cardiol, p. 2047487319899212, 2020.
R. Mathur, Palla, L., Farmer, R. E., Chaturvedi, N., and Smeeth, L., Ethnic differences in the severity and clinical management of type 2 diabetes at time of diagnosis: A cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Diabetes Res Clin Pract, vol. 160, p. 108006, 2020.
R. Mathur, Farmer, R. E., Eastwood, S. V., Chaturvedi, N., Douglas, I., and Smeeth, L., Ethnic disparities in initiation and intensification of diabetes treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes in the UK, 1990-2017: A cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 17, p. e1003106, 2020.
E. M. Heintjes, Bezemer, I. D., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Smits, E., Booth, H. P., Dedman, D., He, Y., Hoti, F., Vehkala, M., de Vogel, S., Robinson, N. J., Appenteng, K., and van Beest, F. J. A. Penn, Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Additional Risk Minimization Measure to Reduce the Risk of Prescribing Mirabegron to Patients with Severe Uncontrolled Hypertension in Four European Countries, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 12, pp. 423-433, 2020.
R. Palladino, Marrie, R. A., Majeed, A., and Chataway, J., Evaluating the Risk of Macrovascular Events and Mortality Among People With Multiple Sclerosis in England, JAMA Neurol, 2020.
Y. Li, Sperrin, M., Martin, G. P., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Examining the impact of data quality and completeness of electronic health records on predictions of patients' risks of cardiovascular disease, Int J Med Inform, vol. 133, p. 104033, 2020.
M. Besford, Graham, S., Sammon, C., Mehmud, F., Allan, V., Alikhan, R., and Ramagopalan, S., Factors associated with non-prescription of oral anticoagulant treatment in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients with dementia: a CPRD-HES study, Age Ageing, 2020.
H. Hope, Parisi, R., Ashcroft, D. M., Williams, R., Coton, S., Kosidou, K., Pierce, M., and Abel, K. M., Fertility trends of women with serious mental illness in the United Kingdom 1992-2017: A primary care cohort study using the clinical practice research datalink, J Affect Disord, vol. 269, pp. 141-147, 2020.
J. Wu, Mackie, S. L., and Pujades-Rodriguez, M., Glucocorticoid dose-dependent risk of type 2 diabetes in six immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: a population-based cohort analysis, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 8, 2020.
R. E. Costello, Yimer, B. B., Roads, P., Jani, M., and Dixon, W. G., Glucocorticoid use is associated with an increased risk of hypertension, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
S. Jarvis, Parslow, R. C., Hewitt, C., Mitchell, S., and Fraser, L. K., GPs' role in caring for children and young people with life-limiting conditions: a retrospective cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, 2020.
L. K. Fraser, Murtagh, F. E. M., Sheldon, T., Gilbody, S., and Hewitt, C., Health of mothers of children with a life-limiting condition: a protocol for comparative cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMJ Open, vol. 10, p. e034024, 2020.
A. Gayle, Schoof, N., Alves, M., Clarke, D., Raabe, C., Das, P., Del Galdo, F., and Maher, T. M., Healthcare Resource Utilization Among Patients in England with Systemic Sclerosis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease: A Retrospective Database Analysis, Adv Ther, 2020.
C. L. Morgan, Varga, S., Tsong, W., Jenkins-Jones, S., and Holden, S., Healthcare utilization and associated costs following initiation of perampanel in patients with epilepsy, Epilepsy Behav, vol. 110, p. 107137, 2020.
A. Pate, Elliott, R. A., Gkountouras, G., Thompson, A., Emsley, R., and Van Staa, T., The impact of statin discontinuation and restarting rates on the optimal time to initiate statins and on the number of cardiovascular events prevented, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2020.
F. Tyrer, Zaccardi, F., Khunti, K., and Morriss, R., Incidence of Depression and First-Line Antidepressant Therapy in People with Obesity and Depression in Primary Care, Obesity (Silver Spring), vol. 28, pp. 977-984, 2020.
C. V. Chalitsios, McKeever, T. M., and Shaw, D. E., Incidence of osteoporosis and fragility fractures in asthma: a UK population-based matched cohort study, Eur Respir J, 2020.
L. Grønbaek, Otete, H., Ban, L., Crooks, C., Card, T., Jepsen, P., and West, J., Incidence, prevalence, and mortality of autoimmune hepatitis in England 1997-2015. A population-based cohort study, Liver Int, 2020.
M. S. M. Persson, Harman, K. E., Vinogradova, Y., Langan, S. M., Hippisley-Cox, J., Thomas, K. S., and Gran, S., Incidence, prevalence, and mortality of bullous pemphigoid in England 1998-2017: a population-based cohort study, Br J Dermatol, 2020.
O. B. Esan, Perera, R., McCarthy, N., Violato, M., and Fanshawe, T. R., Incidence, risk factors, and health service burden of sequelae of campylobacter and non-typhoidal salmonella infections in England, 2000-2015: A retrospective cohort study using linked electronic health records, J Infect, 2020.
R. Persson, Lee, S., Yood, M. U., Wagner, M., Minton, N., Niemcryk, S., Lindholm, A., Evans, A., and Jick, S., Incident cardiovascular disease in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis: A multi-database study, Mult Scler Relat Disord, vol. 37, p. 101423, 2020.
R. Persson, Lee, S., Yood, M. U., Mc, M. R. Wagner, Minton, N., Niemcryk, S., Lindholm, A., Evans, A. M., and Jick, S., Incident depression in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis: a multi-database study, Eur J Neurol, 2020.
J. Rouette, Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Bouganim, N., Platt, R. W., and Azoulay, L., Incretin-based drugs and risk of lung cancer among individuals with type 2 diabetes, Diabet Med, 2020.
R. Persson, Lee, S., M. Yood, U., Mc, C. M. Wagner, Minton, N., Niemcryk, S., Lindholm, A., Evans, A. M., and Jick, S. S., Infections in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis: A multi-database study, Mult Scler Relat Disord, vol. 41, p. 101982, 2020.
C. S. Osam, Pierce, M., Hope, H., Ashcroft, D. M., and Abel, K. M., The influence of maternal mental illness on vaccination uptake in children: a UK population-based cohort study, Eur J Epidemiol, 2020.
L. E. Clarson, Bajpai, R., Whittle, R., Belcher, J., A. Sultan, A., Kwok, C. S., Welsh, V., Mamas, M., and Mallen, C. D., Interstitial lung disease is a risk factor for ischaemic heart disease and myocardial infarction, Heart, 2020.
C. Martinez, Wallenhorst, C., Rietbrock, S., and Freedman, B., Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Risk Following Vitamin K Antagonist Cessation in Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation: A Cohort Study, J Am Heart Assoc, vol. 9, p. e014376, 2020.
H. J. L. Heerspink, Karasik, A., Thuresson, M., Melzer-Cohen, C., Chodick, G., Khunti, K., Wilding, J. P. H., Rodriguez, L. A. Garcia, Cea-Soriano, L., Kohsaka, S., Nicolucci, A., Lucisano, G., Lin, F. J., Wang, C. Y., Wittbrodt, E., Fenici, P., and Kosiborod, M., Kidney outcomes associated with use of SGLT2 inhibitors in real-world clinical practice (CVD-REAL 3): a multinational observational cohort study, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, vol. 8, pp. 27-35, 2020.
S. Price, Zhang, X., and Spencer, A., Measuring the impact of national guidelines: What methods can be used to uncover time-varying effects for healthcare evaluations?, Soc Sci Med, vol. 258, p. 113021, 2020.
Y. Tang, Weiss, T., Liu, J., Rajpathak, S., and Khunti, K., Metformin adherence and discontinuation among patients with type 2 diabetes: A retrospective cohort study, J Clin Transl Endocrinol, vol. 20, p. 100225, 2020.
A. T. O. Nickinson, Coles, B., Zaccardi, F., Gray, L. J., Payne, T., Bown, M. J., Davies, R. S. M., Khunti, K., and Sayers, R. D., Missed Opportunities for Timely Recognition of Chronic Limb-Threatening Ischaemia in Patients Undergoing a Major Amputation: A Population Based Cohort Study Using the UK's Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg, 2020.
R. Partington, Muller, S., Mallen, C. D., A. Sultan, A., and Helliwell, T., Mortality among patients with polymyalgia rheumatica: A retrospective cohort study, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), 2020.
I. E. M. Bultink, de Vries, F., van Vollenhoven, R. F., and Lalmohamed, A., Mortality, causes of death and influence of medication use in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus vs matched controls, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2020.
C. J. Sammon, Leahy, T. P., and Ramagopalan, S., Nonindependence of patient data in the clinical practice research datalink: a case study in atrial fibrillation patients, J Comp Eff Res, 2020.
C. W. le Roux, Hartvig, N. V., Haase, C. L., Nordsborg, R. B., Olsen, A. H., and Satylganova, A., Obesity, cardiovascular risk and healthcare resource utilization in the UK, Eur J Prev Cardiol, p. 2047487320925639, 2020.
G. Glover, Williams, R., and Oyinlola, J., An observational cohort study of numbers and causes of preventable general hospital admissions in people with and without intellectual disabilities in England, J Intellect Disabil Res, 2020.
C. van Durme, Spaetgens, B., Driessen, J., Nielen, J., Sastry, M., Boonen, A., and de Vries, F., Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of gout: a population-based case-control study, Arthritis Res Ther, vol. 22, p. 92, 2020.
D. Alarkawi, Ali, M. S., Bliuc, D., Pallares, N., Tebe, C., Elhussein, L., Caskey, F. J., Arden, N. K., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Abrahamsen, B., Diez-Perez, A., Pascual, J., Perez-Saez, M. J., Center, J. R., Judge, A., Cooper, C., Javaid, M. K., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Oral bisphosphonate use and all-cause mortality in patients with moderate-severe (grade 3B-5D) chronic kidney disease: a population-based cohort study, J Bone Miner Res, 2020.
J. J. Lee, Smith, M., Bankhead, C., R. Salazar, P., Kousoulis, A. A., Butler, C. C., and Wang, K., Oseltamivir and influenza-related complications in children: a retrospective cohort in primary care, Eur Respir J, 2020.
A. Gadoud, Kane, E., Oliver, S. E., Johnson, M. J., Macleod, U., and Allgar, V., Palliative care for non-cancer conditions in primary care: a time trend analysis in the UK (2009-2014), BMJ Support Palliat Care, 2020.
M. M. Loiacono, Mahmud, S. M., Chit, A., van Aalst, R., Kwong, J. C., Mitsakakis, N., Skinner, L., Thommes, E., Bricout, H., and Grootendorst, P., Patient and practice level factors associated with seasonal influenza vaccine uptake among at-risk adults in England, 2011 to 2016: An age-stratified retrospective cohort study, Vaccine X, vol. 4, p. 100054, 2020.
C. Siffel, Page, M., Maxwell, T., Thun, B., Kolb, N., Rosenlund, M., von Bredow, D., and Keja, J., Patterns of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Use in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Europe, J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol, 2020.
[Page last reviewed 7 September 2020]