Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,800 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 9 Sepember 2021) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 4MB, 239 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2869 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
O. R. Olaiya and Huynh, M. N. Q., Dupuytren's Disease Predicts Increased All-Cause and Cancer-Specific Mortality: Analysis of a Large Cohort from the U.K. Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Plast Reconstr Surg, vol. 147, p. 890e-891e, 2021.
S. Livingstone, Morales, D. R., Donnan, P. T., Payne, K., Thompson, A. J., Youn, J. H., and Guthrie, B., Effect of competing mortality risks on predictive performance of the QRISK3 cardiovascular risk prediction tool in older people and those with comorbidity: external validation population cohort study, Lancet Healthy Longev, vol. 2, pp. e352-e361, 2021.
M. Povey, Aris, E., Cheuvart, B., Hall, G., Cohet, C., and Willame, C., Effectiveness of "Priorix" Against Measles and Mumps Diseases in Children Born After 2004 in the United Kingdom: A Retrospective Case-control Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD Database, Pediatr Infect Dis J, vol. 40, pp. 590-596, 2021.
M. J. Carr, Steeg, S., Webb, R. T., Kapur, N., Chew-Graham, C. A., Abel, K. M., Hope, H., Pierce, M., and Ashcroft, D. M., Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on primary care-recorded mental illness and self-harm episodes in the UK: a population-based cohort study, Lancet Public Health, vol. 6, pp. e124-e135, 2021.
F. Bianic, Guelfucci, F., Robin, L., Martre, C., Game, D., and Bockenhauer, D., Epidemiology of Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis: A Study Using Linked UK Primary Care and Hospital Data, Nephron, pp. 1-10, 2021.
S. S. Jick, Oleske, D. M., Persson, R., Zamudio, J., and Facheris, M. F., Epidemiology of skin event rates among users of pumps for the subcutaneous administration of drugs for chronic conditions, Curr Med Res Opin, pp. 1-9, 2021.
D. Yu, Peat, G., Jordan, K. P., Bailey, J., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Robinson, D. E., Strauss, V. Y., Walker-Bone, K., Silman, A., Mamas, M., Blackburn, S., Dent, S., Dunn, K., Judge, A., Protheroe, J., and Wilkie, R., Estimating the population health burden of musculoskeletal conditions using primary care electronic health records, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
M. Alexandridou, Cattaert, T., and Verstraeten, T., Estimation of Risk of Death Attributable to Acute Gastroenteritis Not Caused by Clostridioides difficile Infection Among Hospitalized Adults in England, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 13, pp. 309-315, 2021.
M. D. Danese, Pemberton-Ross, P., Catterick, D., and Villa, G., Estimation of the increased risk associated with recurrent events or polyvascular atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the United Kingdom, Eur J Prev Cardiol, vol. 28, pp. 335-343, 2021.
J. Davidson, Banerjee, A., Mathur, R., Ramsay, M., Smeeth, L., Walker, J., McDonald, H., and Warren-Gash, C., Ethnic differences in the incidence of clinically diagnosed influenza: an England population-based cohort study 2008-2018, Wellcome Open Res, vol. 6, p. 49, 2021.
Y. V. Chudasama, Zaccardi, F., Coles, B., Gillies, C. L., Hvid, C., Seidu, S., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Ethnic, social and multimorbidity disparities in therapeutic inertia: a UK primary care observational study in patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2021.
R. Caleyachetty, Barber, T. M., Mohammed, N. I., Cappuccio, F. P., Hardy, R., Mathur, R., Banerjee, A., and Gill, P., Ethnicity-specific BMI cutoffs for obesity based on type 2 diabetes risk in England: a population-based cohort study, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 2021.
W. Y. Khawagi, Steinke, D., Carr, M. J., Wright, A. K., Ashcroft, D. M., Avery, A., and Keers, R. N., Evaluating the safety of mental health-related prescribing in UK primary care: a cross-sectional study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), BMJ Qual Saf, 2021.
A. Banerjee, Chen, S., Pasea, L., Lai, A. G., Katsoulis, M., Denaxas, S., Nafilyan, V., Williams, B., Wong, W. K., Bakhai, A., Khunti, K., Pillay, D., Noursadeghi, M., Wu, H., Pareek, N., Bromage, D., McDonagh, T. A., Byrne, J., Teo, J. T. H., Shah, A. M., Humberstone, B., Tang, L. V., Shah, A. S. V., Rubboli, A., Guo, Y., Hu, Y., Sudlow, C. L. M., Lip, G. Y. H., and Hemingway, H., Excess deaths in people with cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic, Eur J Prev Cardiol, 2021.
E. Cecil, Bottle, A., Majeed, A., and Aylin, P., Factors associated with potentially missed acute deterioration in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
K. Ngaosuwan, Johnston, D. G., Godsland, I. F., Cox, J., Majeed, A., Quint, J. K., Oliver, N., and Robinson, S., Full Mortality risk in patients with adrenal insufficiency using Prednisolone or Hydrocortisone: A Retrospective Cohort study, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2021.
S. Ling, Zaccardi, F., Lawson, C., Seidu, S. I., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Glucose Control, Sulfonylureas, and Insulin Treatment in Elderly People With Type 2 Diabetes and Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia and Death: An Observational Study, Diabetes Care, 2021.
B. Zheng, Su, B., Price, G., Tzoulaki, I., Ahmadi-Abhari, S., and Middleton, L., Glycemic Control, Diabetic Complications, and Risk of Dementia in Patients With Diabetes: Results From a Large U.K. Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, 2021.
S. Price, Abel, G. A., and Hamilton, W., Guideline interval: A new time interval in the diagnostic pathway for symptomatic cancer, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 73, p. 101969, 2021.
L. K. Fraser, Murtagh, F. E., Aldridge, J., Sheldon, T., Gilbody, S., and Hewitt, C., Health of mothers of children with a life-limiting condition: a comparative cohort study, Arch Dis Child, 2021.
M. C. Gulliford, Charlton, J., Boiko, O., Winter, J. R., Rezel-Potts, E., Sun, X., Burgess, C., McDermott, L., Bunce, C., Shearer, J., Curcin, V., Fox, R., Hay, A. D., Little, P., Moore, M. V., and Ashworth, M., Health Services and Delivery Research, in Safety of reducing antibiotic prescribing in primary care: a mixed-methods study, Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library Copyright © 2021 Gulliford et al. This work was produced by Gulliford et al. under the terms of a commissioning contract issued by the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care. This is an Open Access publication distributed und, 2021.
J. Lister, Han, L., Bellass, S., Taylor, J., Alderson, S. L., Doran, T., Gilbody, S., Hewitt, C., Holt, R. I. G., Jacobs, R., Kitchen, C. E. W., Prady, S. L., Radford, J., Ride, J. R., Shiers, D., Wang, H. I., and Siddiqi, N., Health Services and Delivery Research, in Identifying determinants of diabetes risk and outcomes for people with severe mental illness: a mixed-methods study, Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library Copyright © 2021 Lister et al. This work was produced by Lister et al. under the terms of a commissioning contract issued by the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care. This is an Open Access publication distributed under the, 2021.
A. Ruigomez, Plana, E., Gilsenan, A., Fortuny, J., Cainzos-Achirica, M., Flynn, R. W. V., MacDonald, T. M., Garcia-Rodriguez, L., Ziemiecki, R., and Andrews, E. B., Identification and Validation of Major Cardiovascular Events in the United Kingdom Data Sources Included in a Multi-database Post-authorization Safety Study of Prucalopride, Drug Saf, 2021.
S. L. Lay-Flurrie, Sheppard, J. P., Stevens, R. J., Mallen, C., Heneghan, C., Hobbs, F. R., Williams, B., Mant, J., and McManus, R. J., Impact of changes to national guidelines on hypertension-related workload: an interrupted time series analysis in English primary care, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e296-e302, 2021.
L. R. Rodgers, Streeter, A. J., Lin, N., Hamilton, W., and Henley, W. E., Impact of influenza vaccination on amoxicillin prescriptions in older adults: A retrospective cohort study using primary care data, PLoS One, vol. 16, p. e0246156, 2021.
L. Han, Doran, T., Holt, R. I. G., Hewitt, C., Jacobs, R., Prady, S. L., Alderson, S. L., Shiers, D., Wang, H. I., Bellass, S., Gilbody, S., Kitchen, C. E. W., Lister, J., Taylor, J., and Siddiqi, N., The impact of severe mental illness on healthcare use and health outcomes for people with type 2 diabetes, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
K. Ngaosuwan, Johnston, D. G., Godsland, I. F., Cox, J., Majeed, A., Quint, J. K., Oliver, N., and Robinson, S., Increased mortality risk in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2021.
G. Requena, Logie, J., Gibbons, D. C., Steinfeld, J., and Van Dyke, M. K., The increasing incidence and prevalence of hypereosinophilic syndrome in the United Kingdom, Immun Inflamm Dis, 2021.
K. E. Mansfield, Mathur, R., Tazare, J., Henderson, A. D., Mulick, A. R., Carreira, H., Matthews, A. A., Bidulka, P., Gayle, A., Forbes, H., Cook, S., Wong, A. Y. S., Strongman, H., Wing, K., Warren-Gash, C., Cadogan, S. L., Smeeth, L., Hayes, J. F., Quint, J. K., McKee, M., and Langan, S. M., Indirect acute effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health in the UK: a population-based study, Lancet Digit Health, 2021.
A. Head, Fleming, K., Kypridemos, C., Schofield, P., Pearson-Stuttard, J., and O'Flaherty, M., Inequalities in incident and prevalent multimorbidity in England, 2004–19: a population-based, descriptive study, Lancet Healthy Longev, vol. 2, pp. e489-e497, 2021.
B. van Bodegraven, Palin, V., Mistry, C., Sperrin, M., White, A., Welfare, W., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Infection-related complications after common infection in association with new antibiotic prescribing in primary care: retrospective cohort study using linked electronic health records, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e041218, 2021.
A. Douros, Santella, C., Dell'Aniello, S., Azoulay, L., Renoux, C., Suissa, S., and Brassard, P., Infectious Disease Burden and the Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A Population-Based Study, J Alzheimers Dis, 2021.
Y. Schonmann, Mansfield, K. E., Mulick, A., Roberts, A., Smeeth, L., Langan, S. M., and Nitsch, D., Inflammatory Skin Diseases and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease - Population-Based Case-control and Cohort analyses, Br J Dermatol, 2021.
V. C. Brunetti, Yu, O. H. Y., Platt, R. W., and Filion, K. B., Initiation of four basal insulins and subsequent treatment modification in people treated for type 2 diabetes in the United Kingdom: Changes over the period 2003-2018, Diabet Med, p. e14603, 2021.
D. R. Morales, Lipworth, B. J., Donnan, P. T., and Wang, H., Intolerance to Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors in Asthma and the General Population: A UK Population-Based Cohort Study, J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 2021.
M. Ardissino, Vincent, M., Hines, O., Amin, R., Eichhorn, C., Tang, A. R., Collins, P., Moussa, O., and Purkayastha, S., Long-term cardiovascular outcomes after orlistat therapy in patients with obesity: a nationwide, propensity-score matched cohort study, Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother, 2021.
O. Moussa, Ardissino, M., Tang, A., Edwards, J., Heaton, T., Khan, O., Tsang, K., Collins, P., and Purkayastha, S., Long-term cerebrovascular outcomes after bariatric surgery: A nationwide cohort study, Clin Neurol Neurosurg, vol. 203, p. 106560, 2021.
O. Moussa, Ardissino, M., Muttoni, S., Faraj, A., Tang, A., Khan, O., Collins, P., Jaffer, U., and Purkayastha, S., Long-term incidence and outcomes of obesity-related peripheral vascular disease after bariatric surgery, Langenbecks Arch Surg, 2021.
S. Abtahi, Driessen, J. H. M., Burden, A. M., Souverein, P. C., van den Bergh, J. P., van Staa, T. P., Boonen, A., and de Vries, F., Low-dose oral glucocorticoid therapy and risk of osteoporotic fractures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
K. Wing, Williamson, E., Carpenter, J. R., Wise, L., Schneeweiss, S., Smeeth, L., Quint, J. K., and Douglas, I., Medications for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a historical non-interventional cohort study with validation against RCT results, Health Technol Assess, vol. 25, pp. 1-70, 2021.
K. Suissa, Schneeweiss, S., Douros, A., Filion, K. B., Yin, H., Patorno, E., and Azoulay, L., The modifying effects of adiposity on the cardiovascular safety of sulphonylureas, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2021.
F. Tyrer, Morriss, R., Kiani, R., Gangadharan, S. K., and Rutherford, M. J., Mortality disparities and deprivation among people with intellectual disabilities in England: 2000-2019, J Epidemiol Community Health, 2021.
J. Tran, Norton, R., Canoy, D., Solares, J. R. Ayala, Conrad, N., Nazarzadeh, M., Raimondi, F., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Rodgers, A., and Rahimi, K., Multi-morbidity and blood pressure trajectories in hypertensive patients: A multiple landmark cohort study, PLoS Med, vol. 18, p. e1003674, 2021.
C. J. Taylor, Lay-Flurrie, S. L., Ordonez-Mena, J. M., Goyder, C. R., Jones, N. R., Roalfe, A. K., and Hobbs, F. R., Natriuretic peptide level at heart failure diagnosis and risk of hospitalisation and death in England 2004-2018, Heart, 2021.
K. Richardson, Savva, G. M., Boyd, P. J., Aldus, C., Maidment, I., Pakpahan, E., Loke, Y. K., Arthur, A., Steel, N., Ballard, C., Howard, R., and Fox, C., Non-benzodiazepine hypnotic use for sleep disturbance in people aged over 55 years living with dementia: a series of cohort studies, Health Technol Assess, vol. 25, pp. 1-202, 2021.
S. Lopes, Meincke, H. H., Lamotte, M., Olivieri, A. V., and Lean, M. E. J., A novel decision model to predict the impact of weight management interventions: The Core Obesity Model, Obes Sci Pract, vol. 7, pp. 269-280, 2021.
S. Erridge, Moussa, O., McIntyre, C., Hariri, A., Tolley, N., Kotecha, B., and Purkayastha, S., Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Patients: a UK Population Analysis, Obes Surg, 2021.
S. Khalid, Reyes, C., Ernst, M., Delmestri, A., Toth, E., Libanati, C., Abrahamsen, B., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., One- and 2-year incidence of osteoporotic fracture: a multi-cohort observational study using routinely collected real-world data, Osteoporos Int, 2021.
E. J. Peach, Pearce, F. A., Gibson, J., Cooper, A. J., Chen, L. C., and Knaggs, R. D., Opioids and the Risk of Fracture: a Self-Controlled Case Series Study in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Am J Epidemiol, 2021.
C. A. Lawson, Seidu, S., Zaccardi, F., McCann, G., Kadam, U. T., Davies, M. J., Lam, C. S. P., Heerspink, H. L., and Khunti, K., Outcome trends in people with heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease in the UK over twenty years, EClinicalMedicine, 2021.
[Page last reviewed 9 September 2021]