Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 3,000 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography listed below is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 15 September 2023).

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: CPRD bibliography PDF September 2023 (PDF, 4MB, 299 pages) 

Download: CPRD bibliography .BIB September 2023 (BIB, 1.3MB, 1 page)

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website

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Valsartan, Losartan and Irbesartan use in the USA, UK, Canada and Denmark after the nitrosamine recalls: a descriptive cohort study


Authors: E. Eworuke, M. Shinde, L. Hou, M. Paterson, P. Jensen, J. Maro, A. Rai, D. Scarnecchia, D. Pennap, D. Woronow, R. Ghosh, S. Welburn, A. Pottegard, R. Platt, H. Lee, M. Bradley


Real-world characterisation of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps with and without surgery in England


Authors: V. Benson, Q. Fu, S. Yang, A. Sousa, R. Chan, P. Howarth, C. Hopkins


Long-acting insulin analogues and the risk of diabetic retinopathy among patients with type 2 diabetes: A population-based cohort study


Authors: S. Larose, C. Filliter, R. Platt, O. H. Y. Yu, K. Filion


Body mass index and survival in people with heart failure


Authors: N. Jones, J. Ordonez-Mena, A. Roalfe, K. Taylor, C. Goyder, F. Hobbs, C. Taylor


Real-world comparative effectiveness of three single-inhaler dual bronchodilators for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


Authors: J. Li, S. Dell'Aniello, P. Ernst, S. Suissa


Independent Associations of Incident Epilepsy and Enzyme-Inducing and Non-Enzyme-Inducing Antiseizure Medications With the Development of Osteoporosis


Authors: C. Josephson, A. Gonzalez-Izquierdo, S. Denaxas, T. Sajobi, K. Klein, S. Wiebe


Non-fatal overdose risk associated with prescribing opioid agonists concurrently with other medication: Cohort study conducted using linked primary care, secondary care and mortality records


Authors: E. Domzaridou, M. Carr, T. Millar, R. Webb, D. Ashcroft


Persistent inequalities in consultation incidence and prevalence of low back pain and osteoarthritis in England between 2004 and 2019


Authors: D. Yu, K. Jordan, R. Wilkie, J. Bailey, J. Fitzpatrick, N. Ali, P. Niblett, G. Peat


SGLT2 Inhibitors and the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism: A Population-based Cohort Study


Authors: S. Aloe, C. Filliter, S. Salmasi, S. Igweokpala, O. H. Y. Yu, V. Tagalakis, K. Filion


Incidence and Factors associated with Mental Health Disorders in Rectal Cancer Patients Post-Restorative Proctectomy


Authors: J. Moon, R. Garfinkle, P. Zelkowitz, S. Dell'Aniello, C. Vasilevsky, P. Brassard, M. Boutros


Cause-specific mortality in COPD subpopulations: a cohort study of 339 647 people in England


Authors: H. Whittaker, K. Rothnie, J. Quint


Preconception management of hyperthyroidism and thyroid status in subsequent pregnancy: a population-based cohort study


Authors: C. Minassian, L. Allen, O. Okosieme, B. Vaidya, P. Taylor


Inequalities in cancer mortality trends in people with type 2 diabetes: 20 year population-based study in England


Authors: S. Ling, F. Zaccardi, E. Issa, M. Davies, K. Khunti, K. Brown


The association between atopic eczema and lymphopenia: results from a UK cohort study with replication in US survey data


Authors: L. Hollestein, M. Ye, A. Ky-Leigh, H. Forbes, K. Mansfield, K. Abuabara, L. Smeeth, S. Langan


Proton pump inhibitors and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease: population-based cohort study


Authors: D. Abrahami, R. Pradhan, H. Yin, R. Yanofsky, E. McDonald, A. Bitton, L. Azoulay


Referral to the NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme and conversion from nondiabetic hyperglycaemia to type 2 diabetes mellitus in England: A matched cohort analysis


Authors: R. Ravindrarajah, M. Sutton, D. Reeves, S. Cotterill, E. McManus, R. Meacock, W. Whittaker, C. Soiland-Reyes, S. Heller, P. Bower, E. Kontopantelis


Characterising complex health needs and the use of preventive therapies in the older population: a population-based cohort analysis of UK primary care and hospital linked data


Authors: L. Elhussein, A. Jödicke, Y. He, A. Delmestri, D. Robinson, V . Y. Strauss, D. Prieto-Alhambra


Derivation and validation of the CFracture competing risk fracture prediction tool compared with QFracture in older people and people with comorbidity: a population cohort study


Authors: S. Livingstone, B. Guthrie, M. McMinn, C. Eke, P. Donnan, D. Morales


Identifying subtypes of chronic kidney disease with machine learning: development, internal validation and prognostic validation using linked electronic health records in 350,067 individuals


Authors: A. Dashtban, M. Mizani, L. Pasea, S. Denaxas, R. Corbett, J. Mamza, H. Gao, T. Morris, H. Hemingway, A. Banerjee


Combinations of medicines in patients with polypharmacy aged 65-100 in primary care: Large variability in risks of adverse drug related and emergency hospital admissions


Authors: A. Fahmi, D. Wong, L. Walker, I. Buchan, M. Pirmohamed, A. Sharma, H. Cant, D. Ashcroft, T. van Staa


Bariatric Surgery and Incident Heart Failure: a Propensity Score Matched Nationwide Cohort Study


Authors: L. Kostanjsek, M. Ardissino, O. Moussa, B. Rayes, R. Amin, P. Collins, S. Purkayastha


Ethnic differences in hypertension management, medication use and blood pressure control in UK primary care, 2006-2019: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: S. Eastwood, A. Hughes, L. Tomlinson, R. Mathur, L. Smeeth, K. Bhaskaran, N. Chaturvedi


Treatment Patterns, Healthcare Utilization and Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Initiating Single-Inhaler Long-Acting β(2)-Agonist/Long-Acting Muscarinic Antagonist Dual Therapy in Primary Care in England


Authors: G. Requena, V. Banks, A. Czira, R. Wood, T. Tritton, R. Wild, C. Compton, A. Ismaila


Underlying cancer risk among patients with fatigue and other vague symptoms: a population-based cohort study in primary care


Authors: B. White, C. Renzi, M. Barclay, G. Lyratzopoulos


Risk of venous thromboembolism with gout flares


Authors: E. Cipolletta, L. Tata, G. Nakafero, A. Avery, M. Mamas, A. Abhishek


Maternal and child outcomes for pregnant women with pre-existing multiple long-term conditions: protocol for an observational study in the UK


Authors: S. Lee, H. Hope, D. O'Reilly, L. Kent, G. Santorelli, A. Subramanian, N. Moss, A. Azcoaga-Lorenzo, A. Fagbamigbe, C. Nelson-Piercy, C. Yau, C. McCowan, J. Kennedy, K. Phillips, M. Singh, M. Mhereeg, N. Cockburn, P. Brocklehurst, R. Plachcinski, R. Riley, S. Thangaratinam, S. Brophy, S. Sudasinghe, U. Agrawal, Z. Vowles, K. Abel, K. Nirantharakumar, M. Black, K. Eastwood


Polypharmacy during pregnancy and associated risk factors: a retrospective analysis of 577 medication exposures among 1.5 million pregnancies in the UK, 2000-2019


Authors: A. Subramanian, A. Azcoaga-Lorenzo, A. Anand, K. Phillips, S. Lee, N. Cockburn, A. Fagbamigbe, C. Damase-Michel, C. Yau, C. McCowan, D. O'Reilly, G. Santorelli, H. Hope, J. Kennedy, K. Abel, K. Eastwood, L. Locock, M. Black, M. Loane, N. Moss, R. Plachcinski, S. Thangaratinam, S. Brophy, U. Agrawal, Z. Vowles, P. Brocklehurst, H. Dolk, C. Nelson-Piercy, K. Nirantharakumar


Migraine and risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: A population-based cohort study


Authors: H. Crowe, A. Wesselink, E. Hatch, L. Wise, S. Jick


Determining cardiovascular risk in patients with unattributed chest pain in UK primary care: an electronic health record study


Authors: K. Jordan, T. Rathod-Mistry, D. van der Windt, J. Bailey, Y. Chen, L. Clarson, S. Denaxas, R. Hayward, H. Hemingway, T. Kyriacou, M. Mamas


Estimating individualized treatment rules in longitudinal studies with covariate-driven observation times


Authors: J. Coulombe, E. Moodie, S. Shortreed, C. Renoux


A machine learning approach to support triaging of primary versus secondary headache patients using complete blood count


Authors: F. Yang, T. Meng, B. Torben-Nielsen, C. Magnus, C. Liu, E. Dejean


Severe COVID-19 outcomes by cardiovascular risk profile in England in 2020: a population-based cohort study


Authors: C. Warren-Gash, J. Davidson, H. Strongman, E. Herrett, L. Smeeth, J. Breuer, A. Banerjee


Prevalence of co-morbidity and history of recent infection in patients with neuromuscular disease: A cross-sectional analysis of United Kingdom primary care data


Authors: I. Carey, N. Nirmalananthan, T. Harris, S. DeWilde, U. Chaudhry, E. Limb, D. Cook


Twenty-year trajectories of cardio-metabolic factors among people with type 2 diabetes by dementia status in England: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: H. Lai, K. Chang, M. Sharabiani, J. Valabhji, E. Gregg, L. Middleton, A. Majeed, J. Pearson-Stuttard, C. Millett, A. Bottle, E. Vamos


Predicting the risk of acute kidney injury in primary care: derivation and validation of STRATIFY-AKI


Authors: C. Koshiaris, L. Archer, S. Lay-Flurrie, K. Snell, R. Riley, R. Stevens, A. Banerjee, J. Usher-Smith, A. Clegg, R. Payne, M. Ogden, F. Hobbs, R. McManus, J. Sheppard


Rates of adverse clinical events in patients with chronic kidney disease: analysis of electronic health records from the UK clinical practice research datalink linked to hospital data


Authors: D. Little, M. Arnold, K. Hedman, P. Sun, S. Haque, G. James


The association between antihypertensive treatment and serious adverse events by age and frailty: A cohort study


Authors: J. Sheppard, C. Koshiaris, R. Stevens, S. Lay-Flurrie, A. Banerjee, B. Bellows, A. Clegg, F. Hobbs, R. Payne, S. Swain, J. Usher-Smith, R. McManus


Predicting the future risk of lung cancer: development, and internal and external validation of the CanPredict (lung) model in 19·67 million people and evaluation of model performance against seven other risk prediction models


Authors: W. Liao, C. Coupland, J. Burchardt, D. Baldwin, F. Gleeson, J. Hippisley-Cox


Venous thromboembolism following colectomy for diverticular disease: an English population-based cohort study


Authors: Akds Yapa, D. Humes, C. Crooks, C. Lewis-Lloyd


Is Vaccination Against COVID-19 Associated With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Flare? Self-Controlled Case Series Analysis Using the UK CPRD


Authors: T. Card, G. Nakafero, M. Grainge, C. Mallen, J. Van-Tam, H. Williams, A. Abhishek


Polypharmacy and antidepressant acceptability in comorbid depression and type 2 diabetes: a cohort study using UK primary care data


Authors: A. Jeffery, C. Bhanu, K. Walters, I. Wong, D. Osborn, J. Hayes


Contextualising adverse events of special interest to characterise the baseline incidence rates in 24 million patients with COVID-19 across 26 databases: a multinational retrospective cohort study


Authors: E. Voss, A. Shoaibi, Yin Lai, C. Blacketer, T. Alshammari, R. Makadia, K. Haynes, A. Sena, G. Rao, S. van Sandijk, C. Fraboulet, L. Boyer, T. Le Carrour, S. Horban, D. Morales, Martínez Roldán, J. Ramirez-Anguita, M. Mayer, M. de Wilde, L. John, T. Duarte-Salles, E. Roel, A. Pistillo, R. Kolde, F. Maljković, S. Denaxas, V. Papez, M. Kahn, K. Natarajan, C. Reich, A. Secora, E. Minty, N. Shah, J. Posada, M. Morales, D. Bosca, Cadenas Juanino, Diaz Holgado, Pedrera Jiménez, Serrano Balazote, García Barrio, S. Şen, A . Y. Üresin, B. Erdogan, L. Belmans, G. Byttebier, Mlng Malbrain, D. Dedman, Z. Cuccu, R. Vashisht, A. Butte, A. Patel, L. Dahm, C. Han, F. Bu, F. Arshad, A. Ostropolets, F. Nyberg, G. Hripcsak, M. Suchard, D. Prieto-Alhambra, P. Rijnbeek, M. Schuemie, P. Ryan


Analgesic utilization in people with knee osteoarthritis: A population-based study using primary care data


Authors: A. Taqi, S. Gran, R. Knaggs


Incidence of acute otitis media from 2003 to 2019 in children ≤ 17 years in England


Authors: S. Mohanty, B. Podmore, Cuñado Moral, T. Weiss, I. Matthews, E. Sarpong, I. Méndez, N. Qizilbash


Mortality in children with epilepsy: Cohort study using the clinical practice research datalink


Authors: C. Schnier, R. Chin


Evaluating Ethnic Variations in the Risk of Infections in People With Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes: A Matched Cohort Study


Authors: I. Carey, J. Critchley, U. Chaudhry, S. DeWilde, E. Limb, D. Cook, P. Whincup, T. Harris


Adverse infant outcomes following low-risk pregnancies in England: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: M. Riley, D. Lambrelli, S. Graham, O. Henry, A. Sutherland, A. Schmidt, N. Sawalhi-Leckenby, R. Donaldson, S. Stoszek


Evaluating the Performance of High-Dimensional Propensity Scores Compared with Standard Propensity Scores for Comparing Antihypertensive Therapies in the CPRD GOLD Database


Authors: V. Simon, J. Vadel


Comparative Effectiveness of Umeclidinium/Vilanterol versus Inhaled Corticosteroid/Long-Acting β(2)-Agonist in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Primary Care Setting in England


Authors: A. Czira, G. Requena, V. Banks, R. Wood, T. Tritton, C. Castillo, J. Yeap, R. Wild, C. Compton, K. Rothnie, F. Herth, J. Quint, A. Ismaila


Consultation Rate and Mode by Deprivation in English General Practice From 2018 to 2022: Population-Based Study


Authors: E. Vestesson, K. De Corte, E. Crellin, J. Ledger, M. Bakhai, G. Clarke