Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,900 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 January 2022) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 6MB, 247 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2949 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
C. L. Morgan, Jenkins-Jones, S., Knaggs, R., Currie, C., Conway, P., Poole, C. D., and Berni, E., Characterization and Associated Costs of Constipation Relating to Exposure to Strong Opioids in England: An Observational Study, Clin Ther, 2021.
A. Seesaghur, Petruski-Ivleva, N., Banks, V. L., Wang, J. R., Abbasi, A., Neasham, D., and Ramasamy, K., Clinical features and diagnosis of multiple myeloma: a population-based cohort study in primary care, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e052759, 2021.
C. Koshiaris, Van den Bruel, A., Nicholson, B. D., Lay-Flurrie, S., Hobbs, F. R., and Oke, J. L., Clinical prediction tools to identify patients at highest risk of myeloma in primary care: a retrospective open cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e347-e355, 2021.
C. Rebordosa, Plana, E., Rubino, A., Aguado, J., Lei, A., Daoud, S., Saigi-Morgui, N., Perez-Gutthann, S., and Rivero-Ferrer, E., A Cohort Study to Evaluate the Risk of Hospitalisation for Congestive Heart Failure Associated with the Use of Aclidinium and Other Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Medications in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 16, pp. 1461-1475, 2021.
B. I. Jones, Freedman, A., Thomas, M. J., Villalba-Mendez, C., Sathia, L., Flanagan, D., Francis, S., and Currie, C. J., Comorbid diseases and conditions in people with HIV in the UK, Curr Med Res Opin, pp. 1-9, 2021.
L. Bullock, Bedson, J., Chen, Y., Chew-Graham, C. A., and Campbell, P., Comparative differences in musculoskeletal pain consultation and analgesic prescription for people with dementia: a UK-wide matched cohort study, Pain, 2021.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparative Effectiveness of Initial LAMA versus LABA in COPD: Real-World Cohort Study, Copd, vol. 18, pp. 1-8, 2021.
S. Suissa, Dell'Aniello, S., and Ernst, P., Comparing initial LABA-ICS inhalers in COPD: Real-world effectiveness and safety, Respir Med, vol. 189, p. 106645, 2021.
C. R. Dormuth, Winquist, B., Fisher, A., Wu, F., Reynier, P., Suissa, S., Dahl, M., Ma, Z., Lu, X., Zhang, J., Raymond, C. B., Filion, K. B., Platt, R. W., Moriello, C., and Paterson, J. M., Comparison of Pregnancy Outcomes of Patients Treated With Ondansetron vs Alternative Antiemetic Medications in a Multinational, Population-Based Cohort, JAMA Netw Open, vol. 4, p. e215329, 2021.
C. S. Arhi, Dudley, R., Moussa, O., Ardissino, M., Scholtz, S., and Purkayastha, S., The Complex Association Between Bariatric Surgery and Depression: a National Nested-Control Study, Obes Surg, 2021.
A. M. Trafford, Parisi, R., Rutter, M. K., Kontopantelis, E., Griffiths, C. E. M., and Ashcroft, D. M., Concordance and timing in recording cancer events in primary care, hospital and mortality records for patients with and without psoriasis: A population-based cohort study, PLoS One, vol. 16, p. e0254661, 2021.
B. Wiering, Lyratzopoulos, G., Hamilton, W., Campbell, J., and Abel, G., Concordance with urgent referral guidelines in patients presenting with any of six 'alarm' features of possible cancer: a retrospective cohort study using linked primary care records, BMJ Qual Saf, 2021.
Y. Li, Sperrin, M., Ashcroft, D. M., and van Staa, T. P., Consistency of ranking was evaluated as new measure for prediction model stability: longitudinal cohort study, J Clin Epidemiol, vol. 138, pp. 168-177, 2021.
E. Kontopantelis, Panagioti, M., Farragher, T., Munford, L. A., Parisi, R., Planner, C., Spooner, S., Tse, A., Ashcroft, D. M., and Esmail, A., Consultation patterns and frequent attenders in UK primary care from 2000 to 2019: a retrospective cohort analysis of consultation events across 845 general practices, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e054666, 2021.
T. Denee, Kerr, C., Ming, T., Wood, R., Tritton, T., Middleton-Dalby, C., Massey, O., and Desai, M., Current treatments used in clinical practice for major depressive disorder and treatment resistant depression in England: A retrospective database study, J Psychiatr Res, vol. 139, pp. 172-178, 2021.
V. Kuan, Fraser, H. C., Hingorani, M., Denaxas, S., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Direk, K., Nitsch, D., Mathur, R., Parisinos, C. A., Lumbers, R. T., Sofat, R., Wong, I. C. K., Casas, J. P., Thornton, J. M., Hemingway, H., Partridge, L., and Hingorani, A. D., Data-driven identification of ageing-related diseases from electronic health records, Sci Rep, vol. 11, p. 2938, 2021.
R. Pradhan, Abrahami, D., Yin, H., Yu, O. H. Y., Sahasrabudhe, V., E. Andre, B., and Azoulay, L., Defining Clinically-Relevant Target Populations Using Real-World Data to Guide the Design of Representative Antidiabetic Drug Trials, Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2021.
S. Sekelj, Sandler, B., Johnston, E., Pollock, K. G., Hill, N. R., Gordon, J., Tsang, C., Khan, S., Ng, F. S., and Farooqui, U., Detecting undiagnosed atrial fibrillation in UK primary care: Validation of a machine learning prediction algorithm in a retrospective cohort study, Eur J Prev Cardiol, vol. 28, pp. 598-605, 2021.
J. van Dalem, M. Brouwers, C., Burden, A. M., C, D. A. Stehouw, Klungel, O. H., de Vries, F., and J. Driessen, H., "Determinants of treatment modification before and after implementation of the updated 2015 NICE guideline on type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study", Diabetes Res Clin Pract, p. 108828, 2021.
S. F. Weng, Akyea, R. K., Man, K. K., Lau, W. C. Y., Iyen, B., Blais, J. E., Chan, E. W., Siu, C. W., Qureshi, N., Wong, I. C. K., and Kai, J., Determining propensity for sub-optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to statins and future risk of cardiovascular disease, PLoS One, vol. 16, p. e0260839, 2021.
N. Pathak, Zhang, C. X., Boukari, Y., Burns, R., Mathur, R., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., Denaxas, S., Sonnenberg, P., Hayward, A., and Aldridge, R. W., Development and Validation of a Primary Care Electronic Health Record Phenotype to Study Migration and Health in the UK, Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol. 18, 2021.
G. Nakafero, Grainge, M. J., Card, T., Taal, M. W., Aithal, G. P., Zhang, W., Doherty, M., Fox, C. P., Mallen, C. D., and Abhishek, A., Development and validation of a prognostic model for leflunomide discontinuation with abnormal blood-tests during long-term treatment: cohort study using data from Clinical Practice Research Datalink Gold and Aurum, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
J. Langham, Barut, V., Samnaliev, M., Langham, S., Weir, S., Wang, X., Desta, B., and Hammond, E., Disease severity, flares and treatment patterns in adults with systemic lupus erythematosus in the UK: a real-world observational retrospective cohort analysis, Rheumatol Adv Pract, vol. 5, p. rkab061, 2021.
O. R. Olaiya and Huynh, M. N. Q., Dupuytren's Disease Predicts Increased All-Cause and Cancer-Specific Mortality: Analysis of a Large Cohort from the U.K. Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Plast Reconstr Surg, vol. 147, p. 890e-891e, 2021.
S. Livingstone, Morales, D. R., Donnan, P. T., Payne, K., Thompson, A. J., Youn, J. H., and Guthrie, B., Effect of competing mortality risks on predictive performance of the QRISK3 cardiovascular risk prediction tool in older people and those with comorbidity: external validation population cohort study, Lancet Healthy Longev, vol. 2, pp. e352-e361, 2021.
M. Povey, Aris, E., Cheuvart, B., Hall, G., Cohet, C., and Willame, C., Effectiveness of "Priorix" Against Measles and Mumps Diseases in Children Born After 2004 in the United Kingdom: A Retrospective Case-control Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink GOLD Database, Pediatr Infect Dis J, vol. 40, pp. 590-596, 2021.
B. Ehlken, Nishikawa, C., Kaplan, S., Dresco, I., Granados, D., and Toussi, M., Effectiveness of risk minimisation measures for valproate: a drug utilisation study based on implementation of a Risk Minimisation Programme in Europe, analysis of data from the UK, Curr Med Res Opin, pp. 1-20, 2021.
M. J. Carr, Steeg, S., Webb, R. T., Kapur, N., Chew-Graham, C. A., Abel, K. M., Hope, H., Pierce, M., and Ashcroft, D. M., Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on primary care-recorded mental illness and self-harm episodes in the UK: a population-based cohort study, Lancet Public Health, vol. 6, pp. e124-e135, 2021.
A. A. Matthews, S. Hinton, P., Stanway, S., Lyon, A. R., Smeeth, L., Lund, J. L., and Bhaskaran, K., Endocrine therapy use and cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors, Heart, vol. 107, pp. 1327-1335, 2021.
F. Bianic, Guelfucci, F., Robin, L., Martre, C., Game, D., and Bockenhauer, D., Epidemiology of Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis: A Study Using Linked UK Primary Care and Hospital Data, Nephron, pp. 1-10, 2021.
S. S. Jick, Oleske, D. M., Persson, R., Zamudio, J., and Facheris, M. F., Epidemiology of skin event rates among users of pumps for the subcutaneous administration of drugs for chronic conditions, Curr Med Res Opin, pp. 1-9, 2021.
G. Wojewodka, Gulliford, M. C., Ashworth, M., Richardson, M. P., and Ridsdale, L., Epilepsy and mortality: a retrospective cohort analysis with a nested case-control study identifying causes and risk factors from primary care and linkage-derived data, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e052841, 2021.
D. Yu, Peat, G., Jordan, K. P., Bailey, J., Prieto-Alhambra, D., Robinson, D. E., Strauss, V. Y., Walker-Bone, K., Silman, A., Mamas, M., Blackburn, S., Dent, S., Dunn, K., Judge, A., Protheroe, J., and Wilkie, R., Estimating the population health burden of musculoskeletal conditions using primary care electronic health records, Rheumatology (Oxford), 2021.
M. Alexandridou, Cattaert, T., and Verstraeten, T., Estimation of Risk of Death Attributable to Acute Gastroenteritis Not Caused by Clostridioides difficile Infection Among Hospitalized Adults in England, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 13, pp. 309-315, 2021.
M. D. Danese, Pemberton-Ross, P., Catterick, D., and Villa, G., Estimation of the increased risk associated with recurrent events or polyvascular atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the United Kingdom, Eur J Prev Cardiol, vol. 28, pp. 335-343, 2021.
J. Davidson, Banerjee, A., Mathur, R., Ramsay, M., Smeeth, L., Walker, J., McDonald, H., and Warren-Gash, C., Ethnic differences in the incidence of clinically diagnosed influenza: an England population-based cohort study 2008-2018, Wellcome Open Res, vol. 6, p. 49, 2021.
Y. V. Chudasama, Zaccardi, F., Coles, B., Gillies, C. L., Hvid, C., Seidu, S., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Ethnic, social and multimorbidity disparities in therapeutic inertia: a UK primary care observational study in patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2021.
R. Caleyachetty, Barber, T. M., Mohammed, N. I., Cappuccio, F. P., Hardy, R., Mathur, R., Banerjee, A., and Gill, P., Ethnicity-specific BMI cutoffs for obesity based on type 2 diabetes risk in England: a population-based cohort study, Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 2021.
C. Cabrera, Quelen, C., Ouwens, M., Hedman, K., Rigney, U., and Quint, J. K., Evaluating a Cox marginal structural model to assess the comparative effectiveness of inhaled corticosteroids versus no inhaled corticosteroid treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Ann Epidemiol, 2021.
W. Y. Khawagi, Steinke, D., Carr, M. J., Wright, A. K., Ashcroft, D. M., Avery, A., and Keers, R. N., Evaluating the safety of mental health-related prescribing in UK primary care: a cross-sectional study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), BMJ Qual Saf, 2021.
Y. Li, Kurinczuk, J. J., Gale, C., Siassakos, D., and Carson, C., Evidence of disparities in the provision of the maternal postpartum 6-week check in primary care in England, 2015-2018: an observational study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), J Epidemiol Community Health, 2021.
A. Banerjee, Chen, S., Pasea, L., Lai, A. G., Katsoulis, M., Denaxas, S., Nafilyan, V., Williams, B., Wong, W. K., Bakhai, A., Khunti, K., Pillay, D., Noursadeghi, M., Wu, H., Pareek, N., Bromage, D., McDonagh, T. A., Byrne, J., Teo, J. T. H., Shah, A. M., Humberstone, B., Tang, L. V., Shah, A. S. V., Rubboli, A., Guo, Y., Hu, Y., Sudlow, C. L. M., Lip, G. Y. H., and Hemingway, H., Excess deaths in people with cardiovascular diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic, Eur J Prev Cardiol, 2021.
E. Cecil, Bottle, A., Majeed, A., and Aylin, P., Factors associated with potentially missed acute deterioration in primary care, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
S. S. Birring, Currie, C. J., Holden, S. E., Jenkins-Jones, S., Berni, E. R., Jones, B., Berni, T. R., and Langerman, H., The financial burden of treating patients presenting with acute and chronic cough, Curr Med Res Opin, pp. 1-32, 2021.
K. Ngaosuwan, Johnston, D. G., Godsland, I. F., Cox, J., Majeed, A., Quint, J. K., Oliver, N., and Robinson, S., Full Mortality risk in patients with adrenal insufficiency using Prednisolone or Hydrocortisone: A Retrospective Cohort study, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2021.
S. Ling, Zaccardi, F., Lawson, C., Seidu, S. I., Davies, M. J., and Khunti, K., Glucose Control, Sulfonylureas, and Insulin Treatment in Elderly People With Type 2 Diabetes and Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia and Death: An Observational Study, Diabetes Care, 2021.
B. Zheng, Su, B., Price, G., Tzoulaki, I., Ahmadi-Abhari, S., and Middleton, L., Glycemic Control, Diabetic Complications, and Risk of Dementia in Patients With Diabetes: Results From a Large U.K. Cohort Study, Diabetes Care, 2021.
H. R. Whittaker, Gulea, C., Koteci, A., Kallis, C., Morgan, A. D., Iwundu, C., Weeks, M., Gupta, R., and Quint, J. K., GP consultation rates for sequelae after acute covid-19 in patients managed in the community or hospital in the UK: population based study, Bmj, vol. 375, p. e065834, 2021.
S. Price, Abel, G. A., and Hamilton, W., Guideline interval: A new time interval in the diagnostic pathway for symptomatic cancer, Cancer Epidemiol, vol. 73, p. 101969, 2021.
L. K. Fraser, Murtagh, F. E., Aldridge, J., Sheldon, T., Gilbody, S., and Hewitt, C., Health of mothers of children with a life-limiting condition: a comparative cohort study, Arch Dis Child, 2021.
[Page last reviewed 4 January 2022]