Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 3,000 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography listed below is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 8 February 2024).

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.

Download: CPRD bibliography PDF February 2024 (PDF, 4.2MB, 311 pages) 

Download: CPRD bibliography .BIB February 2024 (BIB, 1.3MB, 1 page)

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website

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Characterising the burden of chronic kidney disease among people with type 2 diabetes in England: a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: S. Cook, N. Schmedt, J. Broughton, P. Kalra, L. Tomlinson, J. Quint


Prescribing of Low-dose Rivaroxaban in Patients with Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands


Authors: N. Hunt, R. Pajouheshnia, A. Salih, S. van Doorn, P. Souverein, M. Bazelier, O. Klungel, H. Gardarsdottir


Burden of Pertussis in Adults Aged 50 Years and Older: A Retrospective Database Study in England


Authors: L. Harrington, E. Aris, A. Bhavsar, N. Jamet, E. Akpo, J. Simeone, A. Ramond, D. Lambrelli, J. Oppenheimer, Y. Sergerie, P. Mukherjee, K. Meszaros


External validation of the QLifetime cardiovascular risk prediction tool: population cohort study


Authors: S. Livingstone, D. Morales, J. Fleuriot, P. Donnan, B. Guthrie


Contextualising adverse events of special interest to characterise the baseline incidence rates in 24 million patients with COVID-19 across 26 databases: a multinational retrospective cohort study


Authors: E. Voss, A. Shoaibi, Yin Lai, C. Blacketer, T. Alshammari, R. Makadia, K. Haynes, A. Sena, G. Rao, S. van Sandijk, C. Fraboulet, L. Boyer, T. Le Carrour, S. Horban, D. Morales, Martínez Roldán, J. Ramirez-Anguita, M. Mayer, M. de Wilde, L. John, T. Duarte-Salles, E. Roel, A. Pistillo, R. Kolde, F. Maljković, S. Denaxas, V. Papez, M. Kahn, K. Natarajan, C. Reich, A. Secora, E. Minty, N. Shah, J. Posada, M. Morales, D. Bosca, Cadenas Juanino, Diaz Holgado, Pedrera Jiménez, Serrano Balazote, García Barrio, S. Şen, A . Y. Üresin, B. Erdogan, L. Belmans, G. Byttebier, Mlng Malbrain, D. Dedman, Z. Cuccu, R. Vashisht, A. Butte, A. Patel, L. Dahm, C. Han, F. Bu, F. Arshad, A. Ostropolets, F. Nyberg, G. Hripcsak, M. Suchard, D. Prieto-Alhambra, P. Rijnbeek, M. Schuemie, P. Ryan


Healthcare resource utilisation and cost of pneumococcal disease from 2003 to 2019 in children ≤17 years in England


Authors: S. Mohanty, B. Podmore, Cuñado Moral, I. Matthews, E. Sarpong, A. Azpeitia, N. Qizilbash


The prevalent new-user design for studies with no active comparator: The example of statins and cancer


Authors: S. Suissa, S. Dell'Aniello, C. Renoux


Short-acting β(2)-agonists and exacerbations in children with asthma in England: SABINA Junior


Authors: A. Morgan, E. Maslova, C. Kallis, I. Sinha, G. Roberts, T. Tran, R. van der Valk, J. Quint


Determining cardiovascular risk in patients with unattributed chest pain in UK primary care: an electronic health record study


Authors: K. Jordan, T. Rathod-Mistry, D. van der Windt, J. Bailey, Y. Chen, L. Clarson, S. Denaxas, R. Hayward, H. Hemingway, T. Kyriacou, M. Mamas


Evaluating the Performance of High-Dimensional Propensity Scores Compared with Standard Propensity Scores for Comparing Antihypertensive Therapies in the CPRD GOLD Database


Authors: V. Simon, J. Vadel


Developing prediction models to estimate the risk of two survival outcomes both occurring: A comparison of techniques


Authors: A. Pate, M. Sperrin, R. Riley, J. Sergeant, T. Van Staa, N. Peek, M. Mamas, G. Lip, M. O'Flaherty, I. Buchan, G. Martin


Cause-specific mortality in COPD subpopulations: a cohort study of 339 647 people in England


Authors: H. Whittaker, K. Rothnie, J. Quint


SGLT2 Inhibitors and the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism: A Population-based Cohort Study


Authors: S. Aloe, C. Filliter, S. Salmasi, S. Igweokpala, O. H. Y. Yu, V. Tagalakis, K. Filion


Inequalities in cancer screening participation between adults with and without severe mental illness: results from a cross-sectional analysis of primary care data on English Screening Programmes


Authors: R. Kerrison, A. Jones, J. Peng, G. Price, J. Verne, E. Barley, C. Lugton


Adverse infant outcomes following low-risk pregnancies in England: a retrospective cohort study


Authors: M. Riley, D. Lambrelli, S. Graham, O. Henry, A. Sutherland, A. Schmidt, N. Sawalhi-Leckenby, R. Donaldson, S. Stoszek


Real-world comparative effectiveness of three single-inhaler dual bronchodilators for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


Authors: J. Li, S. Dell'Aniello, P. Ernst, S. Suissa


Temporal trends in eating disorder and self-harm incidence rates among adolescents and young adults in the UK in the 2 years since onset of the COVID-19 pandemic: a population-based study


Authors: A. Trafford, M. Carr, D. Ashcroft, C. Chew-Graham, E. Cockcroft, L. Cybulski, E. Garavini, S. Garg, T. Kabir, N. Kapur, R. Temple, R. Webb, P. Mok


Trends in musculoskeletal consultations and prescribing: an electronic primary care records study


Authors: Victoria Welsh, Kayleigh Mason, James Bailey, Ram Bajpai, Kelvin Jordan, Christian Mallen, Claire Burton


Comparison of characteristics of patients with lung cancer in U.K. primary care databases: Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum and GOLD


Authors: J. Gulikers, A. van Veelen, J. Driessen, P. Souverein, V. Tjan-Heijnen, L. Hendriks, Rmjm van Geel, S. Croes


Weight change and risk of obesity-related complications: A retrospective population-based cohort study of a UK primary care database


Authors: K. MedSci, V. Schnecke, C. Haase, N. Harder-Lauridsen, N. Rathor, K. Sommer, C. Morgen


Real-world study of ethnic differences in glycaemic control and clinical characteristics among insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes initiating biphasic insulin aspart 30/70: A retrospective, observational cohort study in England


Authors: M. Davies, A. Alibegovic, A. Jensen, R. Munikrishnappa, R. Nordsborg, U. Braae


All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Respiratory Mortality in People with Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in England: A Cohort Study Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)


Authors: A. Raslan, J. Quint, S. Cook


An algorithm-based approach to ascertain patients with rare diseases in electronic health records using hypereosinophilic syndrome as an example


Authors: G. Requena, S. Joksaite, N. Galwey, R. Jakes


Mortality in children with epilepsy: Cohort study using the clinical practice research datalink


Authors: C. Schnier, R. Chin


Contemporary trends in the utilization of second-line pharmacological therapies for type 2 diabetes in the United States and the United Kingdom


Authors: D. Abrahami, E. D'Andrea, H. Yin, S. Kim, J. Paik, D. Wexler, L. Azoulay, E. Patorno


Prevalence of cancer risk factors among transgender and gender diverse individuals: a cross-sectional analysis using UK primary care data


Authors: J. Brown, R. Pfeiffer, D. Shrewsbury, S. O'Callaghan, A. Berner, S. Gadalla, M. Shiels, S. Jackson


Predictors of persistent postoperative opioid use following colectomy: a population-based cohort study from England


Authors: R. Baamer, D. Humes, L. Toh, R. Knaggs, D. Lobo


Prevalence and treatment patterns of adult atopic dermatitis in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink


Authors: C. Kleyn, R. McKenzie, A. Meeks, B. Gittens, L. von Arx


Frequency and impact of medication reviews for people aged 65 years or above in UK primary care: an observational study using electronic health records


Authors: R. Joseph, R. Knaggs, C. Coupland, A. Taylor, Y. Vinogradova, D. Butler, L. Gerrard, D. Waldram, B. Iyen, R. Akyea, D. Ashcroft, A. Avery, R. Jack


Incidence and prevalence of heart failure in England: a descriptive analysis of linked primary and secondary care data - the PULSE study


Authors: L. Bellanca, S. Linden, R. Farmer


Trends and patterns of antiseizure medication prescribing during pregnancy between 1995 and 2018 in the United Kingdom: A cohort study


Authors: P. Madley-Dowd, J. Rast, V. Ahlqvist, C. Zhong, F. Martin, N. Davies, K. Lyall, C. Newschaffer, T. Tomson, C. Magnusson, D. Rai, B. Lee, H. Forbes


Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in England from 2000 to 2019


Authors: P. Stone, M. Osen, A. Ellis, R. Coaker, J. Quint


Higher rates of non-skeletal complications and greater healthcare needs in achondroplasia compared to the general UK population: a matched cohort study using the CPRD database


Authors: J. Pimenta, M. Irving, M. Cheung, L. Mazzeo, S. Landis, S. Mukherjee


Recent trends in asthma diagnosis, preschool wheeze diagnosis and asthma exacerbations in English children and adolescents: a SABINA Jr study


Authors: C. Kallis, E. Maslova, A. Morgan, I. Sinha, G. Roberts, R. van der Valk, J. Quint, T. Tran


Validation of the recording of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in routinely collected electronic healthcare records in England


Authors: A. Morgan, R. Gupta, P. George, J. Quint


Incident cardiovascular, renal, metabolic diseases and death in individuals identified for risk-guided atrial fibrillation screening: a nationwide cohort study


Authors: J. Wu, R. Nadarajah, Y. Nakao, K. Nakao, D. Hogg, K. Raveendra, R. Arbel, M. Haim, D. Zahger, C. Cowan, C. Gale


Valsartan, Losartan and Irbesartan use in the USA, UK, Canada and Denmark after the nitrosamine recalls: a descriptive cohort study


Authors: E. Eworuke, M. Shinde, L. Hou, M. Paterson, P. Jensen, J. Maro, A. Rai, D. Scarnecchia, D. Pennap, D. Woronow, R. Ghosh, S. Welburn, A. Pottegard, R. Platt, H. Lee, M. Bradley


Healthcare Resource Use and Costs Associated with Organ Damage in Newly Diagnosed Adults with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in the UK


Authors: H. Stirnadel-Farrant, S. Golam, B. Naisbett-Groet, D. Gibson, J. Langham, S. Langham, M. Samnaliev


Progression of stroke risk in patients aged <65 years diagnosed with atrial fibrillation: a cohort study in general practice


Authors: S. Mendonca, D. Edwards, J. Lund, C. Saunders, J. Mant


Comparison of causal forest and regression-based approaches to evaluate treatment effect heterogeneity: an application for type 2 diabetes precision medicine


Authors: A. Venkatasubramaniam, B. Mateen, B. Shields, A. Hattersley, A. Jones, S. Vollmer, J. Dennis


Venous thromboembolism following colectomy for diverticular disease: an English population-based cohort study


Authors: Akds Yapa, D. Humes, C. Crooks, C. Lewis-Lloyd


Changes to healthcare utilisation and symptoms for common mental health problems over the first 21 months of the COVID-19 pandemic: parallel analyses of electronic health records and survey data in England


Authors: V. Taxiarchi, M. Senior, D. Ashcroft, M. Carr, H. Hope, M. Hotopf, E. Kontopantelis, S. McManus, P. Patalay, S. Steeg, R. Webb, K. Abel, M. Pierce


Incidence of 'Low-Risk but Not No-Risk' Features of Cancer Prior to High-Risk Feature Occurrence: An Observational Cohort Study in Primary Care


Authors: S. Moore, S. Price, J. Bostock, R. Neal, W. Hamilton


Glucose-lowering treatment pathways of individuals with chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2012 risk classification


Authors: C. Pollock, J. Sanchez, J. Carrero, S. Kumar, R. Pecoits-Filho, C. Lam, H. Chen, E. Kanda, M. Lainscak, D. Wheeler


Association Between Fluoroquinolone Use and Hospitalization With Aortic Aneurysm or Aortic Dissection


Authors: J. Brown, K. Wing, C. Leyrat, S. Evans, K. Mansfield, A. Wong, L. Smeeth, N. Galwey, I. Douglas


Temporal patterns in the recorded annual incidence of common mental disorders over two decades in the United Kingdom: a primary care cohort study


Authors: J. Dykxhoorn, D. Osborn, K. Walters, J. Kirkbride, S. Gnani, A. Lazzarino


Seasonality of acute kidney injury phenotypes in England: an unsupervised machine learning classification study of electronic health records


Authors: H. Bolt, A. Suffel, J. Matthewman, F. Sandmann, L. Tomlinson, R. Eggo


Post-initiation predictors of discontinuation of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors: A comparative cohort study from the United Kingdom


Authors: W. Alkabbani, B. Shah, A. Zongo, D. Eurich, M. Alsabbagh, J. Gamble


Persistent high prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among patients with osteoarthritis in the UK in 1992-2017


Authors: D. Yu, X. Huang, M. Mamas, R. Wilkie


Pre-diagnostic prescribing patterns in dyspnoea patients with as-yet-undiagnosed lung cancer: A longitudinal study of linked primary care and cancer registry data


Authors: B. Wickramasinghe, C. Renzi, M. Barclay, M. Callister, M. Rafiq, G. Lyratzopoulos