Research using CPRD data has informed drug safety guidance and clinical practice and resulted in over 2,900 peer-reviewed publications. The CPRD bibliography is updated on a monthly basis (last updated 4 January 2022) and papers are listed below and in the PDF below.

If you have published papers using CPRD data which are not included in this list, please contact us at so that we can update the bibliography.


 (PDF, 6MB, 247 pages) 

This work uses data provided by patients and collected by the NHS as part of their care and support. CPRD encourages researchers to use this citation in all publications using CPRD data. Find out more about acknowledging the use of patient data at the Understanding Patient Data website



Export 2949 results:
Author Title Type [ Year(Asc)]
C. A. Lawson, Seidu, S., Zaccardi, F., McCann, G., Kadam, U. T., Davies, M. J., Lam, C. S. P., Heerspink, H. L., and Khunti, K., Outcome trends in people with heart failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease in the UK over twenty years, EClinicalMedicine, 2021.
A. Adiamah, Ban, L., Otete, H., Crooks, C. J., West, J., and Humes, D. J., Outcomes after non-operative management of perforated diverticular disease: a population-based cohort study, BJS Open, vol. 5, 2021.
T. Inns, Fleming, K. M., Iturriza-Gomara, M., and Hungerford, D., Paediatric rotavirus vaccination, coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes in children: a population-based cohort study, BMC Med, vol. 19, p. 147, 2021.
N. H. Rasmussen, Sarodnik, C., Bours, S. P. G., Schaper, N. C., Souverein, P. C., Jensen, M. H., Driessen, J. H. M., van den Bergh, J. P. W., and Vestergaard, P., The pattern of incident fractures according to fracture site in people with T1D, Osteoporos Int, 2021.
L. Sun, Pennells, L., Kaptoge, S., Nelson, C. P., Ritchie, S. C., Abraham, G., Arnold, M., Bell, S., Bolton, T., Burgess, S., Dudbridge, F., Guo, Q., Sofianopoulou, E., Stevens, D., Thompson, J. R., Butterworth, A. S., Wood, A., Danesh, J., Samani, N. J., Inouye, M., and Di Angelantonio, E., Polygenic risk scores in cardiovascular risk prediction: A cohort study and modelling analyses, PLoS Med, vol. 18, p. e1003498, 2021.
M. Noble, Burden, A., Stirling, S., Clark, A., Musgrave, S., M. Sallakh, A., Price, D., Davies, G., Pinnock, H., Pond, M., Sheikh, A., Sims, E., Walker, S., and Wilson, A., Predicting asthma-related crisis events using routine electronic healthcare data, Br J Gen Pract, 2021.
D. Groves, Karsanji, U., Evans, R. A., Greening, N., Singh, S. J., Quint, J. K., Whittaker, H., Richardson, M., Barrett, J., Sutch, S. P., and Steiner, M. C., Predicting Future Health Risk in COPD: Differential Impact of Disease-Specific and Multi-Morbidity-Based Risk Stratification, Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, vol. 16, pp. 1741-1754, 2021.
S. Khalid, Pineda-Moncusí, M., El-Hussein, L., Delmestri, A., Ernst, M., Smith, C., Libanati, C., Toth, E., Javaid, M. K., Cooper, C., Abrahamsen, B., and Prieto-Alhambra, D., Predicting Imminent Fractures in Patients With a Recent Fracture or Starting Oral Bisphosphonate Therapy: Development and International Validation of Prognostic Models, J Bone Miner Res, 2021.
R. Nadarajah, Wu, J., Frangi, A. F., Hogg, D., Cowan, C., and Gale, C., Predicting patient-level new-onset atrial fibrillation from population-based nationwide electronic health records: protocol of FIND-AF for developing a precision medicine prediction model using artificial intelligence, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e052887, 2021.
Z. Xu, Arnold, M., Stevens, D., Kaptoge, S., Pennells, L., Sweeting, M. J., Barrett, J., Angelantonio, E. D., and Wood, A. M., Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Accounting for Future Initiation of Statin Treatment, Am J Epidemiol, 2021.
J. F. Hayes, Osborn, D. P. J., Francis, E., Ambler, G., Tomlinson, L. A., Boman, M., Wong, I. C. K., Geddes, J. R., Dalman, C., and Lewis, G., Prediction of individuals at high risk of chronic kidney disease during treatment with lithium for bipolar disorder, BMC Med, vol. 19, p. 99, 2021.
R. E. Farmer, Beard, I., Raza, S. I., Gollop, N. D., Patel, N., Tebboth, A., McGovern, A. P., Kanumilli, N., and Ternouth, A., Prescribing in Type 2 Diabetes Patients With and Without Cardiovascular Disease History: a Descriptive Analysis in the UK CPRD, Clin Ther, 2021.
A. Mitchell, Snowball, J., Welsh, T. J., Watson, M. C., and McGrogan, A., Prescribing of direct oral anticoagulants and warfarin to older people with atrial fibrillation in UK general practice: a cohort study, BMC Med, vol. 19, p. 189, 2021.
T. X. D. Cao, Fraga, L. F. C., Fergusson, E., Michaud, J., Dell'Aniello, S., Yin, H., Rej, S., Azoulay, L., and Renoux, C., Prescribing Trends of Antidepressants and Psychotropic Coprescription for Youths in UK Primary Care, 2000-2018, J Affect Disord, vol. 287, pp. 19-25, 2021.
T. Jiao, Platt, R. W., Douros, A., and Filion, K. B., Prescription Patterns for the Use of Antihypertensive Drugs for Primary Prevention among Patients with Hypertension in the United Kingdom, Am J Hypertens, 2021.
I. M. Carey, Banchoff, E., Nirmalananthan, N., Harris, T., DeWilde, S., Chaudhry, U. A. R., and Cook, D. G., Prevalence and incidence of neuromuscular conditions in the UK between 2000 and 2019: A retrospective study using primary care data, PLoS One, vol. 16, p. e0261983, 2021.
R. F. M. Chin, Pickrell, W. O., Guelfucci, F., Martin, M., and Holland, R., Prevalence, healthcare resource utilization and mortality of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: retrospective linkage cohort study, Seizure, vol. 91, pp. 159-166, 2021.
V. Baskaran, Pearce, F., Harwood, R. H., McKeever, T. M., and Lim, W. S., Primary care consultations after hospitalisation for pneumonia: a large population-based cohort study, Br J Gen Pract, vol. 71, pp. e250-e257, 2021.
Y. Zhou, Walter, F. M., Singh, H., Hamilton, W., Abel, G. A., and Lyratzopoulos, G., Prolonged Diagnostic Intervals as Marker of Missed Diagnostic Opportunities in Bladder and Kidney Cancer Patients with Alarm Features: A Longitudinal Linked Data Study, Cancers (Basel), vol. 13, 2021.
P. Bidulka, O'Neill, S., Basu, A., Wilkinson, S., Silverwood, R. J., Charlton, P., Briggs, A., Adler, A. I., Khunti, K., Tomlinson, L. A., Smeeth, L., Douglas, I. J., and Grieve, R., Protocol for an observational cohort study investigating personalised medicine for intensification of treatment in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the PERMIT study, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e046912, 2021.
J. P. Brown, Tazare, J. R., Williamson, E., Mansfield, K. E., Evans, S. J., Tomlinson, L. A., Bhaskaran, K., Smeeth, L., Wing, K., and Douglas, I. J., Proton pump inhibitors and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study, Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2021.
D. Abrahami, McDonald, E. G., Schnitzer, M. E., Barkun, A. N., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Proton pump inhibitors and risk of colorectal cancer, Gut, 2021.
D. Abrahami, McDonald, E. G., Schnitzer, M. E., Barkun, A. N., Suissa, S., and Azoulay, L., Proton pump inhibitors and risk of gastric cancer: population-based cohort study, Gut, 2021.
R. Persson, Sponholtz, T., Vasilakis-Scaramozza, C., Hagberg, K. W., Williams, T., Kotecha, D., Myles, P., and Jick, S. S., Quality and Completeness of Myocardial Infarction Recording in Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum, Clin Epidemiol, vol. 13, pp. 745-753, 2021.
M. J. Schuemie, Weinstein, R., Ryan, P. B., and Berlin, J. A., Quantifying bias in epidemiologic studies evaluating the association between acetaminophen use and cancer, Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, vol. 120, p. 104866, 2021.
B. Coles, Zaccardi, F., Seidu, S., Gillies, C. L., Davies, M. J., Hvid, C., and Khunti, K., Rates and estimated cost of primary care consultations in people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and comorbidities: A retrospective analysis of 8.9 million consultations, Diabetes Obes Metab, 2021.
E. M. Powell, Douglas, I. J., Gungabissoon, U., Smeeth, L., and Wing, K., Real-world effects of medications for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: protocol for a UK population-based non-interventional cohort study with validation against randomised trial results, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e042947, 2021.
T. Khan, El-Sockary, Y., Hamilton, W. T., and Shephard, E. A., Recognizing sinonasal cancer in primary care: a matched case-control study using electronic records, Fam Pract, 2021.
L. Scott, Redaniel, M. T., Booker, M., Payne, R. A., and Tilling, K., Regression discontinuity analysis for pharmacovigilance: statin example reflected trial findings showing little evidence of harm, J Clin Epidemiol, 2021.
W. Alkabbani, Zongo, A., Minhas-Sandhu, J. K., Eurich, D. T., Shah, B. R., Alsabbagh, M. W., and Gamble, J. M., Renal effectiveness and safety of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors: a population-based cohort study, BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, vol. 9, 2021.
J. Rouette, Yin, H., McDonald, E. G., Barkun, A., and Azoulay, L., Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors and Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Drug Saf, 2021.
H. Ahmed, Whitaker, H., Farewell, D., Hippisley-Cox, J., and Noble, S., Respiratory tract infection and risk of bleeding in oral anticoagulant users: self-controlled case series, Bmj, vol. 375, p. e068037, 2021.
S. W. D. Merriel, Ingle, S. M., May, M. T., and Martin, R. M., Retrospective cohort study evaluating clinical, biochemical and pharmacological prognostic factors for prostate cancer progression using primary care data, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e044420, 2021.
J. A. Prior, Paskins, Z., Whittle, R., Abdul-Sultan, A., Chew-Graham, C. A., Muller, S., Bajpai, R., Shepherd, T. A., Sumathipala, A., and Mallen, C. D., Rheumatic Conditions as Risk Factors for Self-Harm: A Retrospective Cohort Study, Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken), vol. 73, pp. 130-137, 2021.
S. Ahmad, Carey, I. M., Harris, T., Cook, D. G., DeWilde, S., and Strachan, D. P., The rising tide of dementia deaths: triangulation of data from three routine data sources using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, BMC Geriatr, vol. 21, p. 375, 2021.
H. R. Mohammad, Gooberman-Hill, R., Delmestri, A., Broomfield, J., Patel, R., Huber, J., Garriga, C., Eccleston, C., Pinedo-Villanueva, R., Malak, T. T., Arden, N., Price, A., Wylde, V., Peters, T. J., Blom, A. W., and Judge, A., Risk factors associated with poor pain outcomes following primary knee replacement surgery: Analysis of data from the clinical practice research datalink, hospital episode statistics and patient reported outcomes as part of the STAR research programme, PLoS One, vol. 16, p. e0261850, 2021.
A. Subota, Jetté, N., Josephson, C. B., McMillan, J., Keezer, M. R., Gonzalez-Izquierdo, A., and Holroyd-Leduc, J., Risk factors for dementia development, frailty, and mortality in older adults with epilepsy - A population-based analysis, Epilepsy Behav, vol. 120, p. 108006, 2021.
I. M. Carey, Cook, D. G., Harris, T., DeWilde, S., Chaudhry, U. A. R., and Strachan, D. P., Risk factors for excess all-cause mortality during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in England: A retrospective cohort study of primary care data, PLoS One, vol. 16, p. e0260381, 2021.
L. Cybulski, Ashcroft, D. M., Carr, M. J., Garg, S., Chew-Graham, C. A., Kapur, N., and Webb, R. T., Risk factors for nonfatal self-harm and suicide among adolescents: two nested case-control studies conducted in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 2021.
J. A. Davidson, Banerjee, A., Smeeth, L., McDonald, H. I., Grint, D., Herrett, E., Forbes, H., Pebody, R., and Warren-Gash, C., Risk of acute respiratory infection and acute cardiovascular events following acute respiratory infection among adults with increased cardiovascular risk in England between 2008 and 2018: a retrospective, population-based cohort study, Lancet Digit Health, vol. 3, pp. e773-e783, 2021.
L. van der Sande, Jöbsis, Q., Bannier, M., van de Garde, E. M. W., Coremans, J. J. M., de Vries, F., Dompeling, E., and Driessen, J. H. M., The risk of community-acquired pneumonia in children using gastric acid suppressants, Eur Respir J, 2021.
K. J. Smith, Peterson, M. D., Victor, C., and Ryan, J. M., Risk of dementia in adults with cerebral palsy: a matched cohort study using general practice data, BMJ Open, vol. 11, p. e042652, 2021.
W. Alkabbani, Gamble, J. M., Eurich, D. T., Minhas-Sandhu, J. K., Shah, B. R., Alsabbagh, M. W., and Zongo, A., Risk of hospitalization and death associated with Sodium Glucose Cotransporter-2 inhibitors: A comparison with five other classes of antidiabetic drugs, Diabetes Metab, p. 101305, 2021.
C. Wallenhorst, Martinez, C., and Freedman, B., Risk of ischemic stroke in asymptomatic atrial fibrillation incidentally-detected in primary care compared with other clinical presentations, Thromb Haemost, 2021.
A. M. Mueller, Liakoni, E., Schneider, C., Burkard, T., Jick, S. S., Krahenbuhl, S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., The Risk of Muscular Events Among New Users of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Statins: an Observational Cohort Study, J Gen Intern Med, 2021.
R. Schneider, Reinau, D., Stoffel, S., Jick, S. S., Meier, C. R., and Spoendlin, J., Risk of skin cancer in new users of thiazides and thiazide-like diuretics: a cohort study using an active comparator group, Br J Dermatol, 2021.
C. V. Chalitsios, Shaw, D. E., and McKeever, T. M., Risk of subtrochanteric and femoral shaft fractures due to bisphosphonate therapy in asthma: a population-based nested case-control study, Osteoporos Int, 2021.
O. Ayodele, Cabral, H. J., McManus, D., and Jick, S., The Risk of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) in Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treated with 5-Alpha Reductase Inhibitors (5ARIs), Clin Epidemiol, vol. 13, pp. 661-673, 2021.
R. Morriss, Tyrer, F., Zaccardi, F., and Khunti, K., Safety of antidepressants in a primary care cohort of adults with obesity and depression, PLoS One, vol. 16, p. e0245722, 2021.
E. L. O'Dowd, K. Haaf, T., Kaur, J., Duffy, S. W., Hamilton, W., Hubbard, R. B., Field, J. K., Callister, M. E., Janes, S. M., de Koning, H. J., Rawlinson, J., and Baldwin, D. R., Selection of eligible participants for screening for lung cancer using primary care data, Thorax, 2021.
[Page last reviewed 4 January 2022]